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Based on nine up-to-date types of semiconductor-optical-amplifier (SOA) samples, we devised a power-consumption model of SOA-based all-optical gates as a tool to develop faster and more efficient OTDM systems for bitrates from 10 to 160 Gb/s and those over 160 Gb/s. The conventional effect of a continuous wave (cw) holding beam was included in the model.(More)
—We describe an optical clock recovery circuit that employs a traveling-wave electroabsorption modulator-based ring oscillator. This approach provides synchronized optical clock and the original optical data signal from the same output at separate wavelengths, eliminating additional timing adjustments for the subsequent nonlinear decision gate for(More)
—A traveling-wave electroabsorption modulator (TW-EAM) is used to realize three simultaneous functions: demultiplexing, detection, and pulse generation. These coex-isting functions are achieved by utilizing microwave harmonic frequencies and independent wavelengths in the TW-EAM. When combined with a phase-locked-loop, these functions enable simultaneous(More)
—An injection-locking traveling-wave electroabsorp-tion modulator-based ring oscillator is demonstrated to perform optical clock recovery and simultaneous reshaping of 40-Gb/s optical packets. The transient response analysis and experimental results show strong injection and short loop length reduce the locking time to within 0.3 s. The recovered packet(More)
We experimentally investigate and compare the effects of copropagating and counterpropagating directions on a semiconductor optical amplifier-Mach-Zehnder interferometer based wavelength converter. When an assist light is not used, the copropagating scheme induces a long rise-fall time and small timing jitter, whereas the counterpropagating scheme induces a(More)
The haemagglutinin subcomponent HA3 of the type B botulinum neurotoxin complex, which is important in toxin absorption from the gastrointestinal tract, has been expressed, purified and subsequently crystallized in two crystal forms at different pH values. Form I belonged to space group R32, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 357.4, c = 249.5 Å, α = β = 90, γ(More)
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