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The Candesartan Antihypertensive Survival Evaluation in Japan Trial was designed to compare the long-term effects of the angiotensin II receptor blocker candesartan and the calcium channel blocker amlodipine on the incidence of cardiovascular events, represented as a composite of sudden death and cerebrovascular, cardiac, renal, and vascular events in(More)
Neurons in the ventrolateral medulla (VLM) mainly determine the tonic sympathetic activity. The caudal VLM (CVLM) relays baroreflex signals to the rostral VLM. We have reported that endogenous angiotensin II (ANG II) contributes to the ongoing activity of the VLM neurons. In the present study, we examined if ANG II endogenous to the CVLM modulates the(More)
The aim of the present study was to examine the effects of L-glutamate and glycine microinjected into the rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM) in conscious unrestrained rats. Microinjection of 2 nmol of L-glutamate increased the mean arterial pressure (MAP) and renal sympathetic nerve activity (RSNA) in the conscious rats. The RSNA responses were(More)
1. Components of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) are found in the brain; both outside and inside the blood-brain barrier. 2. Almost all of the classical actions of the brain RAS are attributable to angiotensin (Ang) II and mediated by AT1 receptors. 3. Circumventricular organs (CVO), which lack the blood-brain barrier, are rich in AngII receptors and(More)
BACKGROUND The prognosis of chronic dialysis patients is poor, in part due to the high incidence of cardiovascular disease. Malnutrition, such as hypoalbuminaemia, has been shown to be a predictor of death in this group of patients, while serum C-reactive protein (CRP) is a predictor of myocardial infarction and sudden death. Thus, the aim of the present(More)
To investigate the effects of an angiotensin II type 1 receptor antagonist (CV-11974) on renal blood flow and renal sympathetic nerve activity compared with a calcium antagonist (nicardipine), we measured both parameters in conscious spontaneously hypertensive rats aged 13 to 15 weeks. One to 2 days after surgery, CV-11974 (n = 9) and nicardipine (n = 8)(More)
We examined the effects of clonidine injected unilaterally into the rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM) of conscious, unrestrained rats. We also examined whether the local alpha(2)-adrenoceptor mechanism contributed to the action of clonidine injected into the RVLM. Injection of clonidine but not vehicle solution significantly decreased the mean arterial(More)
The inhibitory action of alpha 2-agonists on the cardiovascular neurons has been elucidated in the rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM) but not in the caudal ventrolateral medulla (CVLM). Our study aimed to clarify whether microinjection of clonidine into the CVLM elicits any cardiovascular effect and whether endogenous alpha 2-adrenoceptor-mediated(More)
To determine whether ouabain-like compound (OLC) exerts modulatory influences on the activity of vasomotor neurons in the rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM), we examined the effects of microinjecting ouabain, digoxin-specific antibody Fab fragments, and mAb against ouabain on the rat RVLM. Microinjection of ouabain into the unilateral RVLM of anesthetized(More)
Systemic inhibition of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) evokes hypertension, which is enhanced by salt loading, partly via augmented sympathetic activity. We investigated whether inhibition of brain NOS elevates blood pressure (BP) in normotensive rats and, if so, whether the BP elevation is enhanced by salt loading. After a 2-wk low-salt (0.3%) diet, male(More)