A 1.5-dB gain-flatness over 67 nm is achieved with a novel hybrid amplifier comprising a distributed Raman amplifier pumped at two wavelengths and an erbium-doped fluoride fiber amplifier. Fourteen 2.5-Gbit/s signals spanning 65 nm are successfully transmitted over 900 km using our amplifiers.
Oscillatory measurements of a columnar structure were performed, which was formed in an immiscible polymer blend subjected to an electric field. The formation process was observed through a confocal scanning laser microscope and the structure for the measurements was confirmed to be well defined. The storage shear modulus at low frequencies increased with… (More)