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Mycoplasma pneumoniae (Mp) is a leading cause of community acquired pneumonia. Knowledge regarding Mp pneumonia obtained from animal models or human subjects has been discussed in many different reports. Accumulated expertise concerning this critical issue has been hard to apply clinically, and potential problems may remain undiscovered. Therefore, our(More)
Idiopathic pulmonary alveolar proteinosis (I-PAP) is a rare disease of unknown etiology in which the alveoli fill with lipoproteinaceous material. We report here that I-PAP is an autoimmune disease with neutralizing antibody of immunoglobulin G isotype against granulocyte/macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF). The antibody was found to be present in(More)
We have previously observed that HIV-1 replication is suppressed in uninflamed lung and increased during tuberculosis. In vitro THP-1 cell–derived macrophages inhibited HIV-1 repli-cation after infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Suppression of HIV-1 replication was associated with inhibition of the HIV-1 long terminal repeat (LTR) and induction of(More)
HIV-1 replication is markedly upregulated in alveolar macrophages (AM) during pulmonary tuberculosis (TB). This is associated with loss of an inhibitory CCAAT enhancer binding protein beta (C/EBPbeta) transcription factor and activation of nuclear factor (NF)-kappaB. Since the cellular immune response in pulmonary TB requires lymphocyte--macrophage(More)
Diffuse panbronchiolitis (DPB) is a chronic inflammatory airway disease predominantly affecting Asian populations. DPB is considered to be a complex genetic disease. Considering the mucous hypersecretion of the disease, we hypothesized that the transcriptional activity of mucin genes may be altered in DPB. We analyzed nucleotide sequences of regulatory(More)
BACKGROUND Secondary pulmonary alveolar proteinosis (sPAP) is a very rare lung disorder comprising approximately 10% of cases of acquired PAP. Hematological disorders are the most common underlying conditions of sPAP, of which 74% of cases demonstrate myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS). However, the impact of sPAP on the prognosis of underlying MDS remains(More)
High levels of granulocyte/macrophage-colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) autoantibodies are thought to cause pulmonary alveolar proteinosis (PAP), a rare syndrome characterized by myeloid dysfunction resulting in pulmonary surfactant accumulation and respiratory failure. Paradoxically, GM-CSF autoantibodies have been reported to occur rarely in healthy(More)
Granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) is a pleiotropic cytokine, sharing a common beta subunit (CDw131) with interleukins 3 and 5. GM-CSF is important for its direct and indirect involvement in host defense. In veterinary medicine, human (h) GM-CSF has been used as a substitute for canine GM-CSF to stimulate canine granulocytes and(More)
BACKGROUND Although no report has demonstrated the efficacy of corticosteroid therapy for autoimmune pulmonary alveolar proteinosis (aPAP), we sometimes encounter patients who have received this therapy for various reasons. However, as corticosteroids can suppress alveolar macrophage function, corticosteroid therapy might worsen disease severity and(More)