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Live-attenuated human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) variants have shown great promise as AIDS vaccines, but continued replication can lead to the selection of faster-replicating variants that are pathogenic. We therefore designed HIV-1 genomes that replicate exclusively upon addition of the nontoxic effector doxycycline (dox). This was achieved by(More)
Live, attenuated viruses have been the most successful vaccines in monkey models of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection. However, there are several safety concerns about using such an anti-HIV vaccine in humans, including reversion of the vaccine strain to virulence and recombination with endogenous retroviral sequences to produce new(More)
Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) transcription is regulated by the viral Tat protein and cellular factors, of which the concentration and activity may depend on the cell type. Viral long terminal repeat (LTR) promoter sequences are therefore optimized to suit the specific nuclear environment of the target host cell. In long-term cultures of a(More)
Despite intensive efforts, no safe and effective vaccine has been developed for the prophylaxis of human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS). Studies with the simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV)/macaque model demonstrated that live attenuated viruses are the most effective vaccines tested thus far. However, due to ongoing(More)
HIV-1 transcription from the LTR promoter is activated by the viral Tat protein through interaction with the nascent TAR RNA hairpin structure. The mechanism of Tat-mediated transcriptional activation has been extensively investigated with LTR-CAT reporter genes in transient transfections and, more recently, in infection experiments with mutant HIV-1(More)
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