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A process model of perceptual categorization is presented, in which it is assumed that the earliest stages of categorization involve gradual accumulation of information about object features. The model provides a joint account of categorization choice proportions and response times by assuming that the probability that the information-accumulation process(More)
The extended generalized context model for response times (K. Lamberts, 2000) was designed to account for choice proportions and response times in perceptual categorization. In this article, the hypothesis that the model also offers an account of accuracy and response times in absolute identification was investigated. The model was applied to the data from(More)
According to two-process accounts of recognition memory, a familiarity-based process is followed by a slower, more accurate, recall-like process. The dominant two-process account is the recall-to-reject account, in which this second process facilitates the rejection of similar foils. To evaluate the recall-to-reject account, we reanalyzed two experiments(More)
In two experiments, spatial stimulus-response compatibility effects in situations where the stimulus could appear in eight different locations were investigated. The locations were obtained as a result of orthogonal manipulation of hemispace, visual hemifield within hemispace, and relative position within hemifield. In the first experiment, only relative(More)
People with autism have consistently been found to outperform controls on visuo-spatial tasks such as block design, embedded figures, and visual search tasks. Plaisted, O'Riordan, and others (Bonnel et al., 2003; O'Riordan & Plaisted, 2001; O'Riordan, Plaisted, Driver, & Baron-Cohen, 2001; Plaisted, O'Riordan, & Baron-Cohen, 1998a, 1998b) have suggested(More)
BACKGROUND Participant drop-out occurs in all longitudinal studies, and if systematic, may lead to selection biases and erroneous conclusions being drawn from a study. AIMS We investigated whether drop out in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents And Children (ALSPAC) was systematic or random, and if systematic, whether it had an impact on the prediction(More)
Usability is arguably one of the most significant social topics and issues within the field of cybersecurity today. Supported by the need for confidentiality, integrity, availability and other concerns, security features have become standard components of the digital environment which pervade our lives requiring use by novices and experts alike. As security(More)
There is increasing evidence to suggest that mental simulations underlie many cognitive processes. We review results from three rapidly developing research areas suggesting that simulations underlie information retrieval. First, neuroimaging work indicates that cortical circuits that were activated during encoding are reactivated during retrieval. Second,(More)
The inverse base-rate effect in categorization (Medin & Edelson, 1988) arises when participants assign an ambiguous stimulus to a category that occurred less frequently than an alternative category, against the principles of Bayesian decision making. In the experiment reported in this article, rule-based and attention-shifting accounts of the inverse(More)