Koen K A Van Rompay

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Simple affordable interventions are needed to reduce vertical human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) transmission in developing countries. The efficacy of 2 low doses (4 mg/kg, subcutaneously) or 1 high dose (30 mg/kg, subcutaneously) of the reverse-transcriptase inhibitor 9-[2-(phosphonomethoxy)propyl]adenine (PMPA; tenofovir) to protect newborn macaques(More)
Pediatric HIV infection remains a global health crisis with a worldwide infection rate of 2.5 million (WHO, Geneva Switzerland, 2009). Children are much more susceptible to HIV-1 neurological impairments compared with adults, which is exacerbated by coinfections. A major obstacle in pediatric HIV research is sample access. The proposed studies take(More)
BACKGROUND Despite ample evidence that HIV has entered the general population, most HIV awareness programs in India continue to neglect rural areas. Low HIV awareness and high stigma, fueled by low literacy, seasonal migration, gender inequity, spatial dispersion, and cultural taboos pose extra challenges to implement much-needed HIV education programs in(More)
BACKGROUND We reported previously on the emergence and clinical implications of simian immunodeficiency virus (SIVmac251) mutants with a K65R mutation in reverse transcriptase (RT), and the role of CD8+ cell-mediated immune responses in suppressing viremia during tenofovir therapy. Because of significant sequence differences between SIV and HIV-1 RT that(More)
The ability of tenofovir to suppress viremia in simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV)-infected macaques for years despite the presence of virulent viral mutants with reduced in vitro susceptibility is unprecedented in this animal model. In vivo cell depletion experiments demonstrate that tenofovir's ability to suppress viremia during acute and chronic(More)
Previously, Ab-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) was significantly correlated with reduced acute viremia upon intrarectal SIVmac251 challenge of immunized rhesus macaques. To directly assess ADCC protective efficacy, six neonatal macaques were infused s.c. with immune IgG (220 mg/kg) purified from the immunized animals and positive for ADCC and(More)
In this issue of The Journal of Infectious Diseases, the Breastfeeding and HIV International Transmission Study (BHITS) group presents results from an individual patient data meta-analysis of 4085 HIV-1–exposed, breast-fed children from 9 clinical trials conducted in high-prevalence , resource-limited settings [1]. The risk of late postnatal transmission of(More)
We reported previously that while prolonged tenofovir monotherapy of macaques infected with virulent simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) resulted invariably in the emergence of viral mutants with reduced in vitro drug susceptibility and a K65R mutation in reverse transcriptase, some animals controlled virus replication for years. Transient CD8+ cell(More)
Indian rhesus macaques infected with the Rev-independent live-attenuated SIVmac239 strains control viremia to undetectable levels, have persistent but low cellular and humoral anti-SIV responses, and show no signs of immune deficiency. To analyze the immune mechanisms responsible for viral control, five macaques infected at day 1 after birth were subjected(More)