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The reverse transcriptase (RT) inhibitor tenofovir (TFV) is highly effective in the simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) macaque model of human immunodeficiency virus infection. The current report describes extended safety and efficacy data on 32 animals that received prolonged (>or=1- to 13-year) daily subcutaneous TFV regimens. The likelihood of renal(More)
The long-term therapeutic and toxic effects of 9-[2-(phosphonomethoxy)propyl]adenine (PMPA) were evaluated in simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV)-infected newborn rhesus macaques. Four untreated SIV-infected newborn macaques developed persistently high levels of viremia, and three of the four animals had rapidly fatal disease within 3 months. In contrast,(More)
To study tenofovir transfer into milk, two lactating macaques were given a subcutaneous dose of tenofovir (30 mg/kg of body weight). Peak concentrations and area under the curve values of tenofovir in milk were approximately 3 and approximately 20% of those detected in serum, respectively.
The methionine-to-valine mutation in codon 184 (M184V) in reverse transcriptase (RT) of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) or simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) confers resistance to (-)-2'-deoxy-3'-thiacytidine (3TC; lamivudine) and increased sensitivity to 9-[2-(phosphonomethoxy)propyl]adenine (PMPA; tenofovir). We have used the SIV model to(More)
The total number of circulating CD4+ and CD8+ T-cells undergoing clonal expansions following SIV(mac251) infection was determined using a T-cell receptor Vbeta chain (TRBV) third complementarity-determining region (CDR3) DNA heteroduplex tracking assay (HTA). This assay measures the number of newly expanding T-cell clones but not their antigenic(More)
To identify viral determinants of simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) virulence, two pairs of reciprocal recombinants constructed from a pathogenic (SIVmac239) and a nonpathogenic (SIVmac1A11) molecular clone of SIV were tested in rhesus macaques. A large 6.2-kb fragment containing gag, pol, env, and the regulatory genes from each of the cloned (parental)(More)
Optimized plasmid DNAs encoding the majority of SIVmac239 proteins and delivered by electroporation (EP) elicited strong immune responses in rhesus macaques. Vaccination decreased viremia in both the acute and chronic phases of infection after challenge with pathogenic SIVmac251. Two groups of macaques were vaccinated with DNA plasmids producing different(More)
The reverse transcriptase inhibitor 9-[2-(phosphonomethoxy)propyl]adenine (PMPA; tenofovir) was previously found to offer strong prophylactic and therapeutic benefits in an infant macaque model of pediatric human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. We now summarize the toxicity and safety of PMPA in these studies. When a range of PMPA doses (4 to 30(More)
Three infectious, attenuated molecular clones of simian immunodeficiency virus (SIVmac) were tested for viral and host determinants of protective immunity. The viruses differed in degree of virulence from highly attenuated to moderately attenuated to partially attenuated. Levels of immune stimulation and antiviral immunity were measured in rhesus macaques(More)
Simple affordable interventions are needed to reduce vertical human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) transmission in developing countries. The efficacy of 2 low doses (4 mg/kg, subcutaneously) or 1 high dose (30 mg/kg, subcutaneously) of the reverse-transcriptase inhibitor 9-[2-(phosphonomethoxy)propyl]adenine (PMPA; tenofovir) to protect newborn macaques(More)