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The pathogenesis of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is unclear, despite epidemiological data implicating FFAs. We studied the pathogenesis of NASH using lipoapoptosis models. Palmitic acid (PA) induced classical apoptosis of hepatocytes. PA-induced lipoapoptosis was inhibited by acyl-CoA synthetase inhibitor but not by ceramide synthesis inhibitors,(More)
Calcium-independent group VIA phospholipase A2 (iPLA2beta) is considered to play a role in signal transduction and maintenance of homeostasis or remodeling of membrane phospholipids. A role of iPLA2beta has been suggested in various physiological and pathological processes, including immunity, chemotaxis, and cell death, but the details remain unclear.(More)
Infantile neuroaxonal dystrophy (INAD) is a fatal neurodegenerative disease characterized by the widespread presence of axonal swellings (spheroids) in the CNS and PNS and is caused by gene abnormality in PLA2G6 [calcium-independent phospholipase A(2)β (iPLA(2)β)], which is essential for remodeling of membrane phospholipids. To clarify the pathomechanism of(More)
Apoptosis is defined on the basis of morphological changes like nuclear fragmentation and chromatin condensation, which are dependent on caspases. Many forms of caspase-independent cell death have been reported, but the mechanisms are still poorly understood. We found that hypoxic cell death was independent of caspases and was associated with significant(More)
To clarify the role of α-synuclein (αSyn) in neuronal membrane remodeling, we analyzed the expression of αSyn in neurons with a dysfunction of PLA2G6, which is indispensable for membrane remodeling. αSyn/phosphorylated-αSyn (PαSyn) distribution and neurodegeneration were quantitatively estimated in PLA2G6-knockout (KO) mice, which demonstrate marked(More)
The olfactory epithelial layer contains multipotent horizontal basal cells (HBCs) that differentiate into olfactory sensory neurons. Here, we show that rat HBCs express oligodendrocyte progenitor cell (OPC) and astrocyte markers. We generated olfactory sphere (OS) cells in cultures that were derived from adult rat olfactory mucosa. Fluorescence-activated(More)
The mechanisms of cell death induced by hypoxia or ischemia are not yet fully understood. We have previously demonstrated that cell death induced by hypoxia occurs independently of caspases, and is mediated by phospholipase A(2) (PLA(2)). Here, we show that p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase is activated under hypoxia. A selective inhibitor of p38 or(More)
Mast cells release a variety of mediators, including arachidonic acid (AA) metabolites, to regulate allergy, inflammation, and host defense, and their differentiation and maturation within extravascular microenvironments depend on the stromal cytokine stem cell factor. Mouse mast cells express two major intracellular phospholipases A(2) (PLA(2)s), namely(More)
Oxidative stress induces apoptosis or necrosis of many cell types, which can cause tissue injury. Hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) induced apoptotic death of Jurkat cells. This effect was inhibited by overexpression of human Bcl-2, by silencing of cytochrome c, and by ablation of Bax/Bak, indicating that H(2)O(2)-induced apoptosis was mediated by the(More)
Extensive studies have unveiled the intracellular molecular signaling pathways of cell death. To better understand cell death in tissues, it is important to investigate the influence of neighboring cells on the response to death stimuli. By time-lapse microscopy, we found that cells in couplets (two hepatocytes attached to each other) died independently(More)