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Glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3) is a serine/threonine kinase regulating diverse cellular functions including metabolism, transcription and cell survival. Numerous intracellular signalling pathways converge on GSK-3 and regulate its activity via inhibitory serine-phosphorylation. Recently, GSK-3 has been involved in learning and memory and in(More)
Rats were given to drink an unfamiliar taste solution under conditions that result in long-term memory of that taste. The insular cortex, which contains the taste cortex, was then removed and assayed for activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascades by using antibodies to the activated forms of various MAPKs. Extracellular responsive kinase(More)
Application of the protein synthesis inhibitor anisomycin to the rat gustatory cortex before and during training impairs conditioned taste aversion (CTA) to saccharin. No behavioral impairment is observed if the inhibitor is applied to an adjacent cortical area or to one cortical hemisphere only. The consumption of saccharin and of total fluid, as well as(More)
We demonstrate that the NMDA receptor is involved in taste learning in the insular cortex of the behaving rat and describe two facets of this involvement. Blockage of the NMDA receptor in the insular cortex by the reversible antagonist APV during training in a conditioned taste aversion (CTA) paradigm impaired CTA memory, whereas blockage of the NMDA(More)
Long-term potentiation (LTP) is a form of synaptic memory that may subserve developmental and behavioral plasticity. An intensively investigated form of LTP is dependent upon N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors and can be elicited in the dentate gyrus and hippocampal CA1. Induction of this type of LTP is triggered by influx of Ca2+ through activated NMDA(More)
The late phase of long-term potentiation (LTP) and memory (LTM) requires new gene expression, but the molecular mechanisms that underlie these processes are not fully understood. Phosphorylation of eIF2alpha inhibits general translation but selectively stimulates translation of ATF4, a repressor of CREB-mediated late-LTP (L-LTP) and LTM. We used a(More)
Extracellular regulated kinases (ERKI/II), members of the mitogen-activated protein kinase family, play a role in long-term memory and long-term potentiation (LTP). ERKI/II is required for the induction of the early phase of LTP, and we show that it is also required for the late phase of LTP in area CA1 in vitro, induced by a protocol of brief, repeated 100(More)
Muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (mAChRs) are known to be involved in learning and memory, but the molecular basis of their involvement is not well understood. The availability of new and specific biochemical tools has revealed a crucial role for the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) family in learning and memory. Here, we examine the link between(More)
Protein synthesis is required for the expression of enduring memories and long-lasting synaptic plasticity. During cellular proliferation and growth, S6 kinases (S6Ks) are activated and coordinate the synthesis of de novo proteins. We hypothesized that protein synthesis mediated by S6Ks is critical for the manifestation of learning, memory, and synaptic(More)
We have investigated molecular mechanisms of synaptic plasticity in the pathway between two forebrain structures important for taste learning, the basolateral amygdala (BLA) and the insular cortex. We report here that in vivo long-term potentiation (LTP) induced by BLA stimulation requires functional NMDA receptors and is modulated by muscarinic(More)