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Two major arms of the inflammatory response are the NF-κB and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) pathways. Here, we show that enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) employs the type III secretion system to target these two signalling arms by injecting host cells with two effector proteins, NleC and NleD. We provide evidence that NleC and NleD are Zn-dependent(More)
The emergence of pathogenic strains of enteric bacteria and their adaptation to unique niches are associated with the acquisition of foreign DNA segments termed 'genetic islands'. We explored these islands for the occurrence of small RNA (sRNA) encoding genes. Previous systematic screens for enteric bacteria sRNAs were mainly carried out using the(More)
UNLABELLED Type III secretion systems (TTSSs) are employed by pathogens to translocate host cells with effector proteins, which are crucial for virulence. The dynamics of effector translocation, behavior of the translocating bacteria, translocation temporal order, and relative amounts of each of the translocated effectors are all poorly characterized. To(More)
Bacteria use type III secretion systems (TTSS) to translocate effector proteins into host cells. Better understanding of the TTSS and its effectors' functions will require assays to measure their activities in vivo and in real time. We designed a real-time, high-throughput translocation assay that utilizes fusions of effector genes to the beta-lactamase(More)
The complex host-pathogen interplay involves the recognition of the pathogen by the host's innate immune system and countermeasures taken by the pathogen. Detection of invading bacteria by the host leads to rapid activation of the transcription factor NF-kappaB, followed by inflammation and eradication of the intruders. In response, some pathogens,(More)
Enterohemorrhagic and enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EHEC and EPEC, respectively) strains represent a major global health problem. Their virulence is mediated by the concerted activity of an array of virulence factors including toxins, a type III protein secretion system (TTSS), pili, and others. We previously showed that EPEC O127 forms a group 4(More)
Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) is an important human pathogen that causes acute infantile diarrhea. The type IV bundle-forming pili (BFP) of typical EPEC strains are dynamic fibrillar organelles that can extend out and retract into the bacterium. The bfpF gene encodes for BfpF, a protein that promotes pili retraction. The BFP are involved in(More)
Escherichia coli produces polysaccharide capsules that, based on their mechanisms of synthesis and assembly, have been classified into four groups. The group 4 capsule (G4C) polysaccharide is frequently identical to that of the cognate lipopolysaccharide O side chain and has, therefore, also been termed the O-antigen capsule. The genes involved in the(More)
The complex host-pathogen interplay involves the recognition of the pathogen by the host's innate immune system and countermeasures taken by the pathogen. Detection of invading bacteria by the host leads to rapid activation of the transcription factor NF-kB, followed by inflammation and eradication of the intruders. In response, some pathogens, including(More)
The complex host-pathogen interplay involves the recognition of the pathogen by the host's innate immune system and countermeasures taken by the pathogen. Detection of invading bacteria by the host leads to rapid activation of the transcription factor NF-kB, followed by inflammation and eradication of the intruders. In response, some pathogens, including(More)