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This review summarizes the published literature on menopausal symptoms and concerns from the perspective of Asian menopausal women, compares and contrasts common menopausal symptoms between the Asian and the Western postmenopausal populations, and highlights considerations from the perspective of clinical practice. In contrast to menopausal symptomatology(More)
By using a cre-lox conditional knockout strategy, we report here the generation of androgen receptor knockout (ARKO) mice. Phenotype analysis shows that ARKO male mice have a female-like appearance and body weight. Their testes are 80% smaller and serum testosterone concentrations are lower than in wild-type (wt) mice. Spermatogenesis is arrested at(More)
Purpose: To examine the expression of inhibin-activin subunits, follistatin, and Smads 2, 3 and 4 in granulosa-luteal cells at the time of oocyte retrieval. Methods: Quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction was performed to quantify the mRNA expression of the investigated genes: inhibin α-subunit, inhibin-activin βA- and βB-subunits,(More)
BACKGROUND All-trans retinoic acid (RA), the oxidative metabolite of vitamin A, is essential for normal development. In addition, high levels of RA are teratogenic in many species. We have previously shown that excess RA results in immediate effects on the preimplantation embryo and on blastocyst development. This study was conducted to clarify the(More)
Bone metastasis is the major cause of mortality associated with prostate cancer. Whereas activin A is known to inhibit prostate cancer cell growth and promote apoptosis, the correlation of elevated activin A with increasing serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels in bone metastatic stages of prostate cancer is well documented. The molecular mechanisms(More)
Smad proteins have been demonstrated to be key components in the transforming growth factor beta signaling cascade. Here we demonstrate that Smad4, together with Smad3, can interact with the androgen receptor (AR) in the DNA-binding and ligand-binding domains, which may result in the modulation of 5alpha-dihydrotestosterone-induced AR transactivation.(More)
BACKGROUND PAX6, a transcription factor, has currently been suggested to function as a tumor suppressor in glioblastoma and to act as an early differentiation marker for neuroendocrine cells. The androgen receptor (AR) plays a pivotal role in prostate cancer development and progression due to its transcriptional activity in regulating genes involved in cell(More)
Androgens, principally testosterone and 5alpha-dihydrotestosterone, affect a number of diverse responses in a variety of peripheral target tissues. Their biological actions are mediated by a ligand-dependent nuclear transcription factor, the androgen receptor (AR). The AR is a member of the steroid hormone receptor family, which is found in a variety of(More)
Development and progression of prostate cancer are intimately associated with androgen receptor (AR) signaling. The emergence of hormone-refractory prostate cancer and consequent failure of conventional androgen deprivation therapies make it necessary to bypass hormonal resistance by targeting the same signaling pathway at new intervention points. In our(More)