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By using a cre-lox conditional knockout strategy, we report here the generation of androgen receptor knockout (ARKO) mice. Phenotype analysis shows that ARKO male mice have a female-like appearance and body weight. Their testes are 80% smaller and serum testosterone concentrations are lower than in wild-type (wt) mice. Spermatogenesis is arrested at(More)
BACKGROUND All-trans retinoic acid (RA), the oxidative metabolite of vitamin A, is essential for normal development. In addition, high levels of RA are teratogenic in many species. We have previously shown that excess RA results in immediate effects on the preimplantation embryo and on blastocyst development. This study was conducted to clarify the(More)
This review summarizes the published literature on menopausal symptoms and concerns from the perspective of Asian menopausal women, compares and contrasts common menopausal symptoms between the Asian and the Western postmenopausal populations, and highlights considerations from the perspective of clinical practice. In contrast to menopausal symptomatology(More)
Smad proteins have been demonstrated to be key components in the transforming growth factor beta signaling cascade. Here we demonstrate that Smad4, together with Smad3, can interact with the androgen receptor (AR) in the DNA-binding and ligand-binding domains, which may result in the modulation of 5alpha-dihydrotestosterone-induced AR transactivation.(More)
Bone metastasis is the major cause of mortality associated with prostate cancer. Whereas activin A is known to inhibit prostate cancer cell growth and promote apoptosis, the correlation of elevated activin A with increasing serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels in bone metastatic stages of prostate cancer is well documented. The molecular mechanisms(More)
BACKGROUND PAX6, a transcription factor, has currently been suggested to function as a tumor suppressor in glioblastoma and to act as an early differentiation marker for neuroendocrine cells. The androgen receptor (AR) plays a pivotal role in prostate cancer development and progression due to its transcriptional activity in regulating genes involved in cell(More)
Although all-trans retinoic acid (RA), the oxidative metabolite of vitamin A, is essential for normal development, high levels are teratogenic in many species. RA results in immediate effects on the preimplantation embryo and on blastocyst development in vitro and in vivo. To further elucidate the cellular mechanisms of early postimplantation embryo(More)
OBJECTIVE To investigate the effects of standardized soy extract on climacteric symptoms, lipid profiles, bone markers, and serum isoflavone concentration in healthy Taiwanese postmenopausal women. MATERIALS AND METHODS A multicenter, open-labeled, randomized, prospective, comparative study design was used. A total of 130 outpatients who had undergone(More)
UNLABELLED Androgens have important effects on the bone metabolism. However, the effect and mechanism of androgen action on the osteoblasts remains unknown. Here we showed that androgens increase phosphorylation and nuclear translocation of Akt. siRNA-AR prevented androgen-induced Akt activation in MC3T3-E1 cells. This suggests that nongenomic androgen(More)