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Toxic Microcystis strains often produce several isoforms of the cyclic hepatotoxin microcystin, and more than 65 isoforms are known. This has been attributed to relaxed substrate specificity of the adenylation domain. Our results show that in addition to this, variability is also caused by genetic variation in the microcystin synthetase genes. Genetic(More)
The barley (Hordeum vulgare) gene Hv.AGP.S.1 produces two different transcripts encoding small subunits (SSUs) of ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase (AGPase). It was shown previously that one of these transcripts, Hv.1a, encodes the cytosolic SSU in the endosperm. It is shown here that the other transcript produced from Hv.AGP.S.1, Hv.1b, encodes a plastidial(More)
The three anomalously pigmented dinoflagellates Gymnodinium galatheanum, Gyrodinium aureolum, and Gymnodinium breve have plastids possessing 19'-hexanoyloxy-fucoxanthin as the major carotenoid rather than peridinin, which is characteristic of the majority of the dinoflagellates. Analyses of SSU rDNA from the plastid and the nuclear genome of these(More)
The cyanobacterial radiation consists of several lineages of phyletically (morphologically and genetically) related organisms. Several of these organisms show a striking resemblance to fossil counterparts. To investigate the molecular mechanisms responsible for stabilizing or homogenizing cyanobacterial characters, we compared the evolutionary rates and(More)
One of the main challenges in understanding the composition of fecal microbiota is that it can consist of microbial mixtures originating from different gastrointestinal (GI) segments. Here, we addressed this challenge for broiler chicken feces using a direct 16S rRNA gene-sequencing approach combined with multivariate statistical analyses. Broiler feces(More)
BACKGROUND Depression is a chronic syndrome with a pathogenesis linked to various genetic, biological, and environmental factors. Several links between gut microbiota and depression have been established in animal models. In humans, however, few correlations have yet been demonstrated. The aim of our work was therefore to identify potential correlations(More)
PCR techniques have significantly improved the detection and identification of bacterial pathogens. Countless adaptations and applications have been described, including quantitative PCR and the latest innovation, real-time PCR. In real-time PCR, e.g., the 5'-nuclease chemistry renders the automated and direct detection and quantification of PCR products(More)
DNA sequence information for the small-subunit rRNA gene (16S rDNA) obtained from cyanobacterial cultures was used to investigate the presence of cyanobacteria and their abundance in natural habitats. Eight planktonic communities developing in lakes characterized by relatively low algal biomass (mesotrophic) and in lakes with correspondingly high biomass(More)
PCR techniques have significantly improved the detection and identification of bacterial pathogens. Even so, the lack of differentiation between DNA from viable and dead cells is one of the major challenges for diagnostic DNA-based methods. Certain nucleic acid-binding dyes can selectively enter dead bacteria and subsequently be covalently linked to DNA.(More)
The potential presence of widespread and stable bacterial core phylogroups in the human colon has promoted considerable attention. Despite major efforts, no such phylogroups have yet been identified. Therefore, using a novel phylogroup- and tree-independent approach, we present a reanalysis of 1,114,722 V2 region and 71,550 near full-length 16S rRNA(More)