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Toxic Microcystis strains often produce several isoforms of the cyclic hepatotoxin microcystin, and more than 65 isoforms are known. This has been attributed to relaxed substrate specificity of the adenylation domain. Our results show that in addition to this, variability is also caused by genetic variation in the microcystin synthetase genes. Genetic(More)
The three anomalously pigmented dinoflagellates Gymnodinium galatheanum, Gyrodinium aureolum, and Gymnodinium breve have plastids possessing 19'-hexanoyloxy-fucoxanthin as the major carotenoid rather than peridinin, which is characteristic of the majority of the dinoflagellates. Analyses of SSU rDNA from the plastid and the nuclear genome of these(More)
The distinction between viable and dead cells is a major issue in many aspects of biological research. The current technologies for determining viable versus dead cells cannot readily be used for quantitative differentiation of specific cells in mixed populations. This is a serious limitation. We have solved this problem by developing a new concept with the(More)
A major problem in development of a polyphasic taxonomy is that the identification of oxyphotobacterial strains (cyanobacteria and prochlorophytes) in culture collections may be incorrect. We have therefore developed a diagnostic system using the DNA sequence polymorphism in the 16S rRNA regions V6 to V8 for individual strain characterization and(More)
The cyanobacterial radiation consists of several lineages of phyletically (morphologically and genetically) related organisms. Several of these organisms show a striking resemblance to fossil counterparts. To investigate the molecular mechanisms responsible for stabilizing or homogenizing cyanobacterial characters, we compared the evolutionary rates and(More)
The barley (Hordeum vulgare) gene Hv.AGP.S.1 produces two different transcripts encoding small subunits (SSUs) of ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase (AGPase). It was shown previously that one of these transcripts, Hv.1a, encodes the cytosolic SSU in the endosperm. It is shown here that the other transcript produced from Hv.AGP.S.1, Hv.1b, encodes a plastidial(More)
AIMS Surface contamination by Listeria monocytogenes of gouda-like cheeses during processing represents a potential public health problem. The aim of this work was to develop novel real-time PCR diagnostics to detect the presence of viable, dead or viable but not culturable (VBNC) cells on gouda-like cheeses. METHODS AND RESULTS We used ethidium monoazide(More)
DNA sequence information for the small-subunit rRNA gene (16S rDNA) obtained from cyanobacterial cultures was used to investigate the presence of cyanobacteria and their abundance in natural habitats. Eight planktonic communities developing in lakes characterized by relatively low algal biomass (mesotrophic) and in lakes with correspondingly high biomass(More)
One of the main challenges in understanding the composition of fecal microbiota is that it can consist of microbial mixtures originating from different gastrointestinal (GI) segments. Here, we addressed this challenge for broiler chicken feces using a direct 16S rRNA gene-sequencing approach combined with multivariate statistical analyses. Broiler feces(More)
The potential presence of widespread and stable bacterial core phylogroups in the human colon has promoted considerable attention. Despite major efforts, no such phylogroups have yet been identified. Therefore, using a novel phylogroup- and tree-independent approach, we present a reanalysis of 1,114,722 V2 region and 71,550 near full-length 16S rRNA(More)