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Part of the information obtained by rodent whiskers is carried by the frequency of their movement. In the thalamus of anesthetized rats, the whisker frequency is represented by two different coding schemes: by amplitude and spike count (i.e., response amplitudes and spike counts decrease as a function of frequency) in the lemniscal thalamus and by latency(More)
In the vibrissal system, touch information is conveyed by a receptorless whisker hair to follicle mechanoreceptors, which then provide input to the brain. We examined whether any processing, that is, meaningful transformation, occurs in the whisker itself. Using high-speed videography and tracking the movements of whiskers in anesthetized and behaving rats,(More)
Rats explore their environment by actively moving their whiskers. Recently, we described how object location in the horizontal (front-back) axis is encoded by first-order neurons in the trigeminal ganglion (TG) by spike timing. Here we show how TG neurons encode object location along the radial coordinate, i.e., from the snout outward. Using extracellular(More)
Brains adapt to new situations by retuning their neurons. The most common form of neuronal adaptation, typically observed with repetitive stimulations of passive sensory organs, is depression (responses gradually decrease until stabilized). We studied cortical adaptation when stimuli are acquired by active movements of the sensory organ. In anesthetized(More)
To attribute spatial meaning to sensory information, the state of the sensory organ must be represented in the nervous system. In the rodent's vibrissal system, the whisking-cycle phase has been identified as a key coordinate, and phase-based representation of touch has been reported in the somatosensory cortex. Where and how phase is extracted in the(More)
A mechanistic description of the generation of whisker movements is essential for understanding the control of whisking and vibrissal active touch. We explore how facial-motoneuron spikes are translated, via an intrinsic muscle, to whisker movements. This is achieved by constructing, simulating, and analyzing a computational, biomechanical model of the(More)
This study focuses on the structure and function of the primary sensory neurons that innervate vibrissal follicles in the rat. Both the peripheral and central terminations, as well as their firing properties were identified using intracellular labelling and recording in trigeminal ganglia in vivo. Fifty-one labelled neurons terminating peripherally, as(More)
Mammals acquire much of their sensory information by actively moving their sensory organs. Rats, in particular, scan their surrounding environment with their whiskers. This form of active sensing induces specific patterns of temporal encoding of sensory information, which are based on a conversion of space into time via sensor movement. We investigate the(More)