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Viral tropism is the ability of viruses to enter and infect specific host cells and is based on the ability of viruses to bind to receptors on those cells. Testing for HIV tropism is recommended before prescribing a chemokine receptor blocker. In most European countries, HIV tropism is identified with tropism phenotype testing. New data support genotype(More)
The SPREAD Programme investigated prospectively the time trend from September 2002 through December 2005 of transmitted drug resistance (TDR) among 2793 patients in 20 European countries and in Israel with newly diagnosed human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection. The overall prevalence of TDR was 8.4% (225 of 2687 patients; 95% confidence(More)
Drug resistance testing has been shown to be beneficial for clinical management of HIV type 1 infected patients. Whereas phenotypic assays directly measure drug resistance, the commonly used genotypic assays provide only indirect evidence of drug resistance, the major challenge being the interpretation of the sequence information. We analyzed the(More)
BACKGROUND Infection with drug-resistant human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) can impair the response to combination therapy. Widespread transmission of drug-resistant variants has the disturbing potential of limiting future therapy options and affecting the efficacy of postexposure prophylaxis. METHODS We determined the baseline rate of drug(More)
Time courses of phlorizin binding to the outside of membrane vesicles from porcine renal outer cortex and outer medulla were measured and the obtained families of binding curves were fitted to different binding models. To fit the experimental data a model with two binding sites was required. Optimal fits were obtained if a ratio of low and high affinity(More)
Children aged 9-11, 12-14 or 15-17 months, respectively were vaccinated with a measles, mumps and rubella (MMR) vaccine and serum antibody responses and reactogenicity were compared. The data of 118 children could be analysed (group 1=9-11 months, n=46; group 2=12-14 months, n=29, group 3, 15-17 months, n=43). The only significant difference observed was(More)
BACKGROUND Development of drug resistance is one of the major reasons for the failure of antiretroviral therapy of HIV-1 infection. Knowing the drug sensitivity-resistance profile of viruses present in a patient prior to treatment or change in treatment could help to optimize therapy. OBJECTIVE Development of a rapid standardized phenotypic HIV-1 drug(More)
A nested PCR for the detection and rapid identification of human picornaviruses is described. Enteroviruses and rhinoviruses were amplified with the same set of four primers from the 5'-noncoding region. The nested primers allowed the detection of far less than 1 PFU in diluted virus stocks without Southern blot hybridization. In patients with neurological(More)
Therapeutic success of anti-HIV therapies is limited by the development of drug resistant viruses. These genetic variants display complex mutational patterns in their pol gene, which codes for protease and reverse transcriptase, the molecular targets of current antiretroviral therapy. Genotypic resistance testing depends on the ability to interpret such(More)
Diagnostic virus isolation is still frequently used, particularly from respiratory tract secretions. Testing positive virus cultures for all possible viruses is time-consuming, and unexpected or unknown viruses may escape detection. Therefore, a novel random PCR approach was developed that allows sequence-independent amplification of viral nucleic acids(More)