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In plants, light perception by photoreceptors leads to differential expression of an enormous number of genes. An important step for differential gene expression is the regulation of transcription factor activities. To understand these processes in light signal transduction we analyzed the three well-known members of the common plant regulatory factor(More)
Members of the Arabidopsis calcineurin B-like Ca(2)+ binding protein (AtCBL) family are differentially regulated by stress conditions. One AtCBL plays a role in salt stress; another is implicated in response to other stress signals, including drought, cold, and wounding. In this study, we identified a group of novel protein kinases specifically associated(More)
BACKGROUND WRKY proteins belong to the WRKY-GCM1 superfamily of zinc finger transcription factors that have been subject to a large plant-specific diversification. For the cereal crop barley (Hordeum vulgare), three different WRKY proteins have been characterized so far as regulators in sucrose signaling, pathogen defense, and in response to cold and(More)
The Arabidopsis thaliana response regulator 4, expressed in response to phytochrome B action, specifically interacts with the extreme amino-terminus of the photoreceptor. The response regulator 4 stabilizes the active Pfr form of phytochrome B in yeast and in planta, thus elevates the level of the active photoreceptor in vivo. Accordingly, transgenic(More)
It has been a long-standing dogma in life sciences that only eukaryotic organisms possess a cytoskeleton. Recently, this belief was questioned by the finding that the bacterial cell division protein FtsZ resembles tubulin in sequence and structure and, thus, may be the progenitor of this major eukaryotic cytoskeletal element. Here, we report two(More)
Cytokinins are hormones that are involved in various processes of plant growth and development. The model of cytokinin signalling starts with hormone perception through membrane-localized histidine kinase receptors. Although the biochemical properties and functions of these receptors have been extensively studied, there is no solid proof of their(More)
WRKY transcription factors constitute a large protein family in plants that is involved in the regulation of developmental processes and responses to biotic or abiotic stimuli. The question arises how stimulus-specific responses are mediated given that the highly conserved WRKY DNA-binding domain (DBD) exclusively recognizes the 'TTGACY' W-box consensus. We(More)
BACKGROUND The Arabidopsis response regulator 22 (ARR22) is one of two members of a recently defined novel group of two-component system (TCS) elements. TCSs are stimulus perception and response modules of prokaryotic origin, which signal by a His-to-Asp phosphorelay mechanism. In plants, TCS regulators are involved in hormone response pathways, such as(More)
In higher plants, a diverse array of developmental and growth-related processes is regulated by the plant hormone auxin. Recent publications have proposed that besides the well-characterized Auxin Response Factors (ARFs) that bind Auxin Response Elements (AuxREs), also members of the bZIP- and MYB-transcription factor (TF) families participate in(More)
Hormones are important regulators of plant growth and development. In Arabidopsis, perception of the phytohormones ethylene and cytokinin is accomplished by a family of sensor histidine kinases including ethylene-resistant (ETR) 1 and cytokinin-response (CRE) 1. We identified the Arabidopsis response regulator 2 (ARR2) as a signalling component functioning(More)