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Converging data suggest that nitric oxide (NO) production by cytokine-induced immune cells in demyelinating lesions is involved in multiple sclerosis (MS). High levels of NO may complex to suitable amino acids, causing an immune response against the formed neo-epitopes. By testing MS sera with chemically defined nitroso-amino acids conjugated to carrier(More)
Hydrocephalus features include ventricular dilatation and periventricular edema due to transependymal resorption of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Aquaporin 4 (AQP4), a water channel protein located at the blood-brain barrier, might facilitate the removal of this excess of water from the parenchyma into the blood. First, we hypothesized a link between AQP4(More)
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is of great utility in diagnosis and monitoring of multiple sclerosis (MS). Axonal loss is considered the main cause of accumulating irreversible disability. MRI using ultrasmall-super-paramagnetic-iron-oxide (USPIO) nanoparticles is a new technique to disclose in vivo central nervous system (CNS) inflammatory lesions(More)
BACKGROUND The multiple sclerosis functional composite (MSFC) includes the Paced Auditory Serial Addition test (PASAT) as a measure of cognition. OBJECTIVES AND METHODS We compared the MSFC incorporating the Symbol Digit Modalities test (SDMT) (MSFC [sdmt]) to the usually applied MSFC (MSFC [pasat]) in a sample of 46 ptients with relapsing-remitting MS(More)
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Ultrasmall particles of iron oxide (USPIO) constitute a contrast agent that accumulates in cells from the mononuclear phagocytic system. In the CNS they may accumulate in phagocytic cells such as macrophages. The goal of this study was to compare USPIO-enhanced MR images with conventional T2-weighted images and gadolinium-enhanced(More)
UNLABELLED Many women affected with galactosaemia suffer from ovarian dysfunction and have elevated serum levels of follicle stimulating hormone (FSH). We have analysed FSH-glycoprotein isoforms from four galactosaemic and five healthy women. Besides the commonly found FSH species with a median isoelectric point (pI) of 4-5, the sera of the female(More)
OBJECTIVES We investigated proinflammatory M1 and immunomodulatory M2 activation profiles of circulating monocytes in relapsing experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) model of multiple sclerosis, and tested whether altered M1/M2 equilibrium promotes CNS inflammation. RESULTS Approaches of MRI macrophage tracking with USPIO nanoparticles and(More)
Ageing is accompanied by a decline in neurogenesis and in polysialylated isoforms of neural cell adhesion molecule (PSA-NCAM) expression within the hippocampus and by elevated basal levels of circulating corticosterone. In a companion study, we demonstrated that suppression of corticosterone by adrenalectomy increased neurogenesis and PSA-NCAM expression in(More)
Cross-reacting lipid antigens were isolated from Trypanosoma cruzi and the mammalian brain with the monoclonal antibody VESP 6.2. Chemical reactions indicated that the sulfate group of the lipids is an important part of the epitope recognized by the monoclonal antibody. Lipid extracts of mouse brain contained all the antigenic species present in the(More)
The gyrus dentatus is one of the few areas of the brain that continues to produce neurons after birth. The newborn cells differentiate into granule cells which project axons to their postsynaptic targets. This step is accompanied by the transient expression of the polysialylated isoforms of neuronal cell adhesion molecules (PSA-NCAM) by the developing(More)