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The genetic susceptibility to Graves' disease and type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus is conferred by genes in the human leukocyte antigen region on the short arm of chromosome 6, but several other genes are presumed to determine disease susceptibility. Among those candidate genes is the cytotoxic T lymphocyte antigen 4 (CTLA4) located on(More)
BACKGROUND The vitamin D system has been implicated in type 1 diabetes by epidemiological and immune intervention studies as well as by polymorphisms of the vitamin D binding protein (DBP) and CYP27B1 genes. CYP2R1, a cytochrome P450 enzyme, catalyzes the formation of vitamin D3 to 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (25(OH)D3), the main circulating vitamin D metabolite.(More)
Primary adrenal insufficiency (PAI), or Addison's disease, is a rare, potentially deadly, but treatable disease. Most cases of PAI are caused by autoimmune destruction of the adrenal cortex. Consequently, patients with PAI are at higher risk of developing other autoimmune diseases. The diagnosis of PAI is often delayed by many months, and most patients(More)
OBJECTIVE Our objective was to investigate the epidemiology of autoimmune Addison's disease (AD) in Germany. DESIGN Routine data were analyzed from the Statutory Health Insurance (SHI) database of the Techniker Krankenkasse (TK) for an observation period from 01/01/2008 to 31/12/2012. The TK is one of the largest German health care insurance providers(More)
Vitamin D has been shown to exert manifold immunomodulatory effects. Because type 1 diabetes is regarded to be immune-mediated and vitamin D prevents the development of diabetes in the NOD mouse, we investigated the role of the vitamin D receptor (VDR) gene as a candidate for type 1 diabetes susceptibility. A total of 152 Caucasian families with at least(More)
BACKGROUND Recent observations suggest that psoriasis is a risk factor for the development of coronary artery calcification which in turn represents an indicator for atherosclerosis. OBJECTIVE To clarify a possible pathogenetic link between psoriasis and atherosclerosis, we studied the metabolic state of patients with psoriasis. METHODS Thirty-nine(More)
OBJECTIVE Vitamin D-binding protein (DBP) genetic variants have an influence on vitamin D status and, therefore, they may contribute to the development of autoimmune diseases. In this case-control study, we investigated the association of DBP gene polymorphisms with susceptibility to Graves' disease (GD) in a Polish population. Furthermore, we analyzed the(More)
1Alpha,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25(OH)2D3) has important effects on the growth and function of multiple cell types. These pleiotropic effects of 1,25(OH)2D3 are mediated through binding to the vitamin D receptor (VDR). Several polymorphisms of the human VDR gene have been identified, with the FokI polymorphism resulting in VDR proteins with different(More)
OBJECTIVE Autoimmune Addison's disease is a rare disorder which results from the T cell-mediated destruction of adrenocortical cells. A number of genetic susceptibility markers are shared by Addison's disease, type 1 diabetes, Graves' disease and Hashimoto's thyroiditis. The vitamin D endocrine system has been shown to influence immune regulation. Variants(More)
OBJECTIVE It has been suggested that vitamin D may play a role in the pathogenesis of several endocrine diseases, such as hyperparathyroidism, type 1 diabetes (T1DM), type 2 diabetes (T2DM), autoimmune thyroid diseases, Addison's disease and polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). In this review, we debate the role of vitamin D in the pathogenesis of endocrine(More)