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Axons and their synapses distal to an injury undergo rapid Wallerian degeneration, but axons in the C57BL/WldS mouse are protected. The degenerative and protective mechanisms are unknown. We identified the protective gene, which encodes an N-terminal fragment of ubiquitination factor E4B (Ube4b) fused to nicotinamide mononucleotide adenylyltransferase(More)
Perlecan is a heparan sulfate proteoglycan that is expressed in all basement membranes (BMs), in cartilage, and several other mesenchymal tissues during development. Perlecan binds growth factors and interacts with various extracellular matrix proteins and cell adhesion molecules. Homozygous mice with a null mutation in the perlecan gene exhibit normal(More)
The progressive nature of Wallerian degeneration has long been controversial. Conflicting reports that distal stumps of injured axons degenerate anterogradely, retrogradely, or simultaneously are based on statistical observations at discontinuous locations within the nerve, without observing any single axon at two distant points. As axon degeneration is(More)
Cellular interactions with substrata of the microenvironment are one of the major mechanisms for differentiation and morphogenesis. Many of these interactions are mediated via the beta 1 integrin subfamily of cell surface receptors, which are believed to transduce signals upon cell adhesion. We have used beta 1 integrin-deficient embryonic stem cells to(More)
In adult mammalian cardiomyocytes, stimulation of muscarinic receptors counterbalances the beta-adrenoceptor-mediated increase in myocardial contractility and heart rate by decreasing the L-type Ca2+ current (ICa) (1, 2). This effect is mediated via inhibition of adenylyl cyclase and subsequent reduction of cAMP-dependent phosphorylation of(More)
Disruption of the X-linked gene encoding NF-kappa B essential modulator (NEMO) produces male embryonic lethality, completely blocks NF-kappa B activation by proinflammatory cytokines, and interferes with the generation and/or persistence of lymphocytes. Heterozygous female mice develop patchy skin lesions with massive granulocyte infiltration and(More)
In spite of accumulating evidence for a modulation of sympathetic neurotransmission by endogenously produced nitric oxide (NO), it remains unclear in which parts of the vascular system and at what level this interaction takes place. The aim of the present study was to investigate the distribution of endothelial and neuronal NO synthase (NOS) along the(More)
OBJECTIVE To isolate and characterize bone marrow-derived equine mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) for possible future therapeutic applications in horses. SAMPLE POPULATION Equine MSCs were isolated from bone marrow aspirates obtained from the sternum of 30 donor horses. PROCEDURES Cells were cultured in medium (alpha-minimum essential medium) with a fetal(More)
Since NO is believed to be involved in cochlear physiology, presence of the constitutive isoforms of nitric oxide synthase (NOS), and the target enzyme of NO, soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC) in structures of the mammalian cochlea have been demonstrated. To date, no reports have been published regarding the detection of the inducible isoform (NOS II) in the(More)