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Axons and their synapses distal to an injury undergo rapid Wallerian degeneration, but axons in the C57BL/WldS mouse are protected. The degenerative and protective mechanisms are unknown. We identified the protective gene, which encodes an N-terminal fragment of ubiquitination factor E4B (Ube4b) fused to nicotinamide mononucleotide adenylyltransferase(More)
Perlecan is a heparan sulfate proteoglycan that is expressed in all basement membranes (BMs), in cartilage, and several other mesenchymal tissues during development. Perlecan binds growth factors and interacts with various extracellular matrix proteins and cell adhesion molecules. Homozygous mice with a null mutation in the perlecan gene exhibit normal(More)
BACKGROUND The progressive nature of Wallerian degeneration has long been controversial. Conflicting reports that distal stumps of injured axons degenerate anterogradely, retrogradely, or simultaneously are based on statistical observations at discontinuous locations within the nerve, without observing any single axon at two distant points. As axon(More)
We investigated the usefulness of YFP-H transgenic mice [Neuron 28 (2000) 41] which express yellow fluorescent protein (YFP) in a restricted subset of neurons to study Wallerian degeneration in the PNS. Quantification of YFP positive axons and myelin basic protein (MBP) immunocytochemistry revealed that YFP was randomly distributed to approximately 3% of(More)
The pleiotrophic but overlapping functions of the cytokine family that includes interleukin (IL)-6, IL-11, leukemia inhibitory factor, oncostatin M, ciliary neurotrophic factor, and cardiotrophin 1 are mediated by the cytokine receptor subunit gp130 as the common signal transducer. Although mice lacking individual members of this family display only mild(More)
The exact distribution of nitric oxide-synthases (NOS) and the NO-target enzyme soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC) in the cochlea and vestibular organ is an issue of current discussion. The existence of NOS-isoforms in the cochlea of the guinea pig has been described recently, while information about the vestibular system are still rare and non-satisfying. In(More)
Since NO is believed to be involved in cochlear physiology, presence of the constitutive isoforms of nitric oxide synthase (NOS), and the target enzyme of NO, soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC) in structures of the mammalian cochlea have been demonstrated. To date, no reports have been published regarding the detection of the inducible isoform (NOS II) in the(More)
Nitric oxide (NO), a cell-derived highly diffusible and unstable gas is regarded to be involved in inter- and intracellular communication in the nervous system. Based on findings about the expression of the inducible NO synthase (NOS) isoform during development of early mouse olfactory as well as vestibulocochlear receptor neurons, we intended to prove a(More)
PURPOSE To determine whether transplantation of embryonic stem (ES) cells into the subretinal space of rhodopsin-knockout mice has a tumorigenic effect. METHODS Mouse ES-cell-derived neural precursor cells carrying the sequence for the green fluorescent protein (GFP) gene were grafted subretinally into the eyes of rhodopsin(-/-) mice, whereas control(More)