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Axons and their synapses distal to an injury undergo rapid Wallerian degeneration, but axons in the C57BL/WldS mouse are protected. The degenerative and protective mechanisms are unknown. We identified the protective gene, which encodes an N-terminal fragment of ubiquitination factor E4B (Ube4b) fused to nicotinamide mononucleotide adenylyltransferase(More)
Perlecan is a heparan sulfate proteoglycan that is expressed in all basement membranes (BMs), in cartilage, and several other mesenchymal tissues during development. Perlecan binds growth factors and interacts with various extracellular matrix proteins and cell adhesion molecules. Homozygous mice with a null mutation in the perlecan gene exhibit normal(More)
BACKGROUND The progressive nature of Wallerian degeneration has long been controversial. Conflicting reports that distal stumps of injured axons degenerate anterogradely, retrogradely, or simultaneously are based on statistical observations at discontinuous locations within the nerve, without observing any single axon at two distant points. As axon(More)
Cellular interactions with substrata of the microenvironment are one of the major mechanisms for differentiation and morphogenesis. Many of these interactions are mediated via the beta 1 integrin subfamily of cell surface receptors, which are believed to transduce signals upon cell adhesion. We have used beta 1 integrin-deficient embryonic stem cells to(More)
Mammalian cell viability is dependent on the supply of the essential fatty acids (EFAs) linoleic and alpha-linolenic acid. EFAs are converted into omega3- and omega6-polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), which are essential constituents of membrane phospholipids and precursors of eicosanoids, anandamide and docosanoids. Whether EFAs, PUFAs and eicosanoids(More)
We investigated the usefulness of YFP-H transgenic mice [Neuron 28 (2000) 41] which express yellow fluorescent protein (YFP) in a restricted subset of neurons to study Wallerian degeneration in the PNS. Quantification of YFP positive axons and myelin basic protein (MBP) immunocytochemistry revealed that YFP was randomly distributed to approximately 3% of(More)
In adult mammalian cardiomyocytes, stimulation of muscarinic receptors counterbalances the beta-adrenoceptor-mediated increase in myocardial contractility and heart rate by decreasing the L-type Ca2+ current (ICa) (1, 2). This effect is mediated via inhibition of adenylyl cyclase and subsequent reduction of cAMP-dependent phosphorylation of(More)
The nitric oxide (NO) receptor enzyme soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC) contains one prosthetic heme group as an αβ heterodimer, and two heterodimer isoforms (α(1)β(1), α(2)β(1)) were characterized to have enzyme activity. To test the irreversible inflammation-dependent regulation of sGC in odontoblasts, we incubated decalcified frozen sections of healthy and(More)
Axonal dystrophy is the hallmark of axon pathology in many neurodegenerative disorders of the CNS, including Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease and stroke. Axons can also form larger swellings, or spheroids, as in multiple sclerosis and traumatic brain injury. Some spheroids are terminal endbulbs of axon stumps, but swellings may also occur on(More)