Klaus Überla

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The main function attributed to the Rev proteins of immunodeficiency viruses is the shuttling of viral RNAs containing the Rev responsive element (RRE) via the CRM-1 export pathway from the nucleus to the cytoplasm. This restricts expression of structural proteins to the late phase of the lentiviral replication cycle. Using Rev-independent gag-pol(More)
Toll-like receptor (TLR) ligands are being considered as adjuvants for the induction of antigen-specific immune responses, as in the design of vaccines. Polyriboinosinic-polyribocytoidylic acid (poly I:C), a synthetic double-stranded RNA (dsRNA), is recognized by TLR3 and other intracellular receptors. Poly ICLC is a poly I:C analogue, which has been(More)
BACKGROUND The clinical relevance of infections with the novel human coronavirus NL63 (HCoV-NL63) has not been investigated systematically. We therefore determined its association with disease in young children with lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI). METHODS AND FINDINGS Nine hundred forty-nine samples of nasopharyngeal secretions from children(More)
BACKGROUND The antibacterial activity of host defense peptides (HDP) is largely mediated by permeabilization of bacterial membranes. The lipid membrane of enveloped viruses might also be a target of antimicrobial peptides. Therefore, we screened a panel of naturally occurring HDPs representing different classes for inhibition of early, Env-independent steps(More)
BACKGROUND Granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) has shown promising results as a cytokine adjuvant for antiviral vaccines and in various models of tumor gene therapy. To explore whether the targeting of antigens to GM-CSF receptors on antigen-presenting cells enhances antigen-specific CD8 T-cell responses, fusion proteins of GM-CSF and(More)
BACKGROUND Contamination of vertebrate cell lines with animal retroviruses has been documented repeatedly before. Although such viral contaminants can be easily identified with high sensitivity by PCR, it is impossible to screen for all potential contaminants. Therefore, we explored two novel methods to identify viral contaminations in cell lines without(More)
BACKGROUND Targeting of protein antigens to dendritic cells (DC) via the DEC205 receptor enhances presentation of antigen-derived peptides on MHC-I and MHC-II molecules and, in the presence of costimulatory signals, antigen-specific immune responses. The immunogenicity and efficacy of DNA vaccination can also be enhanced by fusing the encoded antigen to(More)
Only two HIV vaccines have been taken through efficacy trials so far. In the first HIV vaccine efficacy trial started ten years ago, recombinant gp120 protein, the CD4-binding subunit of the HIV envelope , was used as vaccine antigen [1]. The vaccine neither prevented HIV acquisition nor reduced the viral load in those acquiring HIV infection. Although the(More)
BACKGROUND Cationic lipid DNA complexes based on DOTAP (1,2-dioleoyl-3-(trimethyammonium) propane) and mixtures of DOTAP and cholesterol (DC) have been previously optimized for transfection efficiency in the absence of serum and used as a non-viral gene delivery system. To determine whether DOTAP and DC lipid DNA complexes could be obtained with increased(More)
BACKGROUND Type I interferons (IFNs) exhibit direct antiviral effects, but also distinct immunomodulatory properties. In this study, we analyzed type I IFN subtypes for their effect on prophylactic adenovirus-based anti-retroviral vaccination of mice against Friend retrovirus (FV) or HIV. RESULTS Mice were vaccinated with adenoviral vectors encoding FV(More)