Klaas Sijtsma

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This discussion paper argues that both the use of Cronbach’s alpha as a reliability estimate and as a measure of internal consistency suffer from major problems. First, alpha always has a value, which cannot be equal to the test score’s reliability given the interitem covariance matrix and the usual assumptions about measurement error. Second, in practice,(More)
This study deals with the influence of each of twelve imputation methods and two methods using the EM algorithm on the results of maximum likelihood factor analysis as compared with results obtained from the complete data factor analysis (no missing scores). Complete questionnaire rating scale data were simulated and, next, missing item scores were created(More)
This article first discusses a statistical test for investigating whether or not the pattern of missing scores in a respondent-by-item data matrix is random. Since this is an asymptotic test, we investigate whether it is useful in small but realistic sample sizes. Then, we discuss two known simple imputation methods, person mean (PM) and two-way (TW)(More)
In recent years, as cognitive theories of learning and instruction have become richer, and computational methods to support assessment have become more powerful, there has been increasing pressure to make assessments truly criterion referenced, that is, to “report” on student achievement relative to theory-driven lists of examinee skills, beliefs and other(More)
The performance of five simple multiple imputation methods for dealing with missing data were compared. In addition, random imputation and multivariate normal imputation were used as lower and upper benchmark, respectively. Test data were simulated and item scores were deleted such that they were either missing completely at random, missing at random, or(More)
The critical reactions of Bentler (2009, doi:10.1007/s11336-008-9100-1), Green and Yang (2009a, doi:10.1007/s11336-008-9098-4; 2009b, doi:10.1007/s11336-008-9099-3), and Revelle and Zinbarg (2009, doi:10.1007/s11336-008-9102-z) to Sijtsma’s (2009, doi:10.1007/s11336-008-9101-0) paper on Cronbach’s alpha are addressed. The dissemination of psychometric(More)
We give a historical introduction to item response theory, which places the work of Thurstone, Lord, Guttman and Coombs in a present-day perspective. The general assumptions of modern item response theory, local independence and monotonicity of response functions, are discussed, followed by a general framework for estimating item response models. Six(More)
Scalability coefficients play an important role in Mokken scale analysis. For a set of items, scalability coefficients have been defined for each pair of items, for each individual item, and for the entire scale. Hypothesis testing with respect to these scalability coefficients has not been fully developed. This study introduces marginal modelling as a(More)
Short tests containing at most 15 items are used in clinical and health psychology, medicine, and psychiatry for making decisions about patients. Because short tests have large measurement error, the authors ask whether they are reliable enough for classifying patients into a treatment and a nontreatment group. For a given certainty level, proportions of(More)