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Diffusion-weighted single voxel experiments conducted at b-values up to 1 x 10(4) smm-2 yielded biexponential signal attenuation curves for both normal and ischemic brain. The relative fractions of the rapidly and slowly decaying components (f1, f2) are f1 = 0.80 +/- 0.02, f2 = 0.17 +/- 0.02 in healthy adult rat brain and f1 = 0.90 +/- 0.02, f2 = 0.11 +/-(More)
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Selective regional sensitivity and delayed damage in cerebral ischemia provide opportunities for directed and late therapy for stroke. Our aim was to characterize the spatial and temporal profile of ischemia-induced changes in cerebral perfusion and tissue status, with the use of noninvasive MRI techniques, to gain more insight in(More)
The endocannabinoid anandamide [N-arachidonoylethanolamine (AEA)] is thought to function as an endogenous protective factor of the brain against acute neuronal damage. However, this has never been tested in an in vivo model of acute brain injury. Here, we show in a longitudinal pharmacological magnetic resonance imaging study that exogenously administered(More)
This review gives an overview of the application of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in experimental models of brain disorders. MRI is a noninvasive and versatile imaging modality that allows longitudinal and three-dimensional assessment of tissue morphology, metabolism, physiology, and function. MRI can be sensitized to proton density, T1, T2,(More)
Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis in the common marmoset, a nonhuman primate species (Callithrix jacchus), is a new model for multiple sclerosis. Given the close immunological relationship between marmosets and humans, it is an attractive model for investigating immunopathological pathways relevant to multiple sclerosis and to evaluate new(More)
Enhanced cerebrovascular permeability and cellular infiltration mark the onset of early multiple sclerosis lesions. So far, the precise sequence of these events and their role in lesion formation and disease progression remain unknown. Here we provide quantitative evidence that blood-brain barrier leakage is an early event and precedes massive cellular(More)
The endocannabinoid system is a valuable target for drug discovery, because it is involved in the regulation of many cellular and physiological functions. The endocannabinoid system constitutes the endogenous lipids anandamide, 2-arachidonoylglycerol and noladin ether, and the cannabinoid CB1 and CB2 receptors as well as the proteins for their inactivation.(More)
To obtain a better understanding of the mechanisms underlying early changes in the brain water apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) observed in cerebral ischemia, dynamic changes in the ADC of water and in the energy status were measured at postnatal day 8 or 9 in neonatal rat brains after cardiac arrest using 1H MRS/MRI and 31P MRS, respectively. The time(More)
Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) induced with recombinant human myelin/oligodendrocyte glycoprotein in the common marmoset is a useful preclinical model of multiple sclerosis in which white matter lesions can be well visualized with MRI. In this study we characterized lesion progression with quantitative in vivo MRI (4.7 T; T(1) relaxation(More)
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Perinatal hypoxia-ischemia is a major cause of neonatal morbidity and mortality. Until now no established neuroprotective intervention after perinatal hypoxia-ischemia has been available. The delay in cell death after perinatal hypoxia-ischemia creates possibilities for therapeutic intervention after the initial insult. Excessive(More)