Klaas Jan Kramer

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This study aimed to assess the time needed by rats, which had not been previously transported, to acclimate to a new environment after 5 h of van transport, using physiological parameters as measures of acclimatization. Animal shipping boxes and transport van conditions were standardized to minimize stress factors that could be associated with transport.(More)
Focusing on reduction in energy use and greenhouse gas emissions, a life-cycle-based analysis tool has been developed. The energy analysis program (EAP) is a computer program for determining energy use and greenhouse gas emissions related to household consumption items, using a hybrid calculation method. EAP consists of a number of fill-in screens(More)
Some experimental procedures are associated with placement of animals in wire-bottom cages. The goal of this study was to evaluate stress-related physiological parameters (heart rate [HR], body temperature [BT], locomotor activity [LA], body weight [BW] and food consumption) in rats under two housing conditions, namely in wire-bottom cages and in(More)
Transportation of laboratory rodents unavoidably causes stress. Nevertheless, very little is known about the effects of transportation and how long it takes for the animal to recuperate. In the present study, we investigated physiological and behavioral parameters before and after transportation in both transported and nontransported animals. We took blood(More)
Most laboratory animals used in research are vendor-bred and transferred to research facilities. Transfer procedures might have considerable and unintended effects on research results. In the present study we compared physiological and behavioral parameters before and after external and internal transfer, as well as between transferred and non-transferred(More)
Transfer from the breeding facility to a research facility is a stressful event for laboratory animals. Heat stress has been reported to constitute one of the major concerns during transport of animals. This study measured ambient and body temperature, corticosterone and glucose levels, body weight, behavior and water and food intake before, during and(More)
The U.S. pulp and paper industry—defined in this Energy Guide as facilities engaged in the manufacture of pulp, paper, and paperboard—consumes over $7 billion worth of purchased fuels and electricity per year. Energy efficiency improvement is an important way to reduce these costs and to increase predictable earnings, especially in times of high energy(More)
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