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More than 20% of the human genome encodes proteins involved in transmembrane and intracellular signaling pathways. The cAMP-protein kinase A (PKA) pathway is one of the most common and versatile signal pathways in eukaryotic cells and is involved in regulation of cellular functions in almost all tissues in mammals. Various extracellular signals converge on(More)
Compartmentalization of cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) is in part mediated by specialized protein motifs in the dimerization domain of the regulatory (R)-subunits of PKA that participate in protein-protein interactions with an amphipathic helix region in A-kinase anchoring proteins (AKAPs). In order to develop a molecular understanding of the(More)
A combination of protein kinase A type II (RII) overlay screening, database searches and PCR was used to identify a centrosomal A-kinase anchoring protein. A cDNA with an 11.7 kb open reading frame was characterized and found to correspond to 50 exons of genomic sequence on human chromosome 7q21-22. This cDNA clone encoded a 3908 amino acid protein of 453(More)
The haematopoietic protein tyrosine phosphatase (HePTP) is a negative regulator of the MAP kinases Erk1, Erk2 and p38. HePTP binds to these kinases through a kinase-interaction motif (KIM) in its non-catalytic amino terminus and inactivates them by dephosphorylating the critical phosphorylated tyrosine residue in their activation loop. Here we show that(More)
Centrosomes provide docking sites for regulatory molecules involved in the control of the cell division cycle. The centrosomal matrix contains several proteins, which anchor kinases and phosphatases. The large A-Kinase Anchoring Protein AKAP450 is acting as a scaffolding protein for other components of the cell signaling machinery. We selectively perturbed(More)
A large number of hormones, neurotransmitters and other signal substances utilize adenosine 3',5' cyclic monophosphate (cAMP) as an intracellular second messenger. Cyclic AMP regulates a number of different cellular processes such as cell growth and differentiation, ion channel conductivity, synaptic release of neurotransmitters, and gene transcription. The(More)
A SNP in the gene PTPN22 is associated with type 1 diabetes, rheumatoid arthritis, lupus, Graves thyroiditis, Addison disease and other autoimmune disorders. T cells from carriers of the predisposing allele produce less interleukin-2 upon TCR stimulation, and the encoded phosphatase has higher catalytic activity and is a more potent negative regulator of T(More)
The sequence of events in T-cell antigen receptor (TCR) signalling leading to T-cell activation involves regulation of a number of protein tyrosine kinases (PTKs) and the phosphorylation status of many of their substrates. Proximal signalling pathways involve PTKs of the Src, Syk, Csk and Tec families, adapter proteins and effector enzymes in a highly(More)
Control of specificity in cAMP signaling is achieved by A-kinase anchoring proteins (AKAPs), which assemble cAMP effectors such as protein kinase A (PKA) into multiprotein signaling complexes in the cell. AKAPs tether the PKA holoenzymes at subcellular locations to favor the phosphorylation of selected substrates. PKA anchoring is mediated by an amphipathic(More)
CD4+CD25+ regulatory T (T(R)) cells suppress effector T cells by partly unknown mechanisms. In this study, we describe a population of human suppressive CD4+CD25+ adaptive T(R) (T(R)(adapt)) cells induced in vitro that express cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2) and the transcription factor FOXP3. T(R)(adapt) cells produce PGE(2) and suppress effector T cell responses(More)