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There is an ongoing demand to improve the ATP-regenerating system for industrial ATP-driven bioprocesses because of the low efficiency of ATP regeneration. To address this issue, we investigated the efficiency of ATP regeneration in Escherichia coli using the Permeable Cell Assay. This assay identified 40 single-gene deletion strains that had over 150%(More)
F1, a water-soluble portion of FoF1-ATP synthase, is an ATP hydrolysis-driven rotary motor. The central gamma-subunit rotates in the alpha 3 beta 3 cylinder by repeating the following four stages of rotation: ATP-binding dwell, rapid 80 degrees substep rotation, interim dwell, and rapid 40 degrees substep rotation. At least two 1-ms catalytic events occur(More)
"Permeable Cell Assay" is an efficient method to measure cellular activity of ATP synthesis. Although ATP is a major energy source for biological reactions, it has been difficult to measure cellular ATP synthetic activity quantitatively. In this assay, bioluminescence from the luciferin-luciferase reaction is used for the quantitative measurement. Under the(More)
The authors have developed an efficient method to measure cellular activity of ATP synthesis. Although ATP is a major energy source of biological reactions, it has been difficult to measure cellular ATP synthetic activity quantitatively. In this report, bioluminescence from the luciferin-luciferase reaction was used for the quantitative measurement. Under(More)
In order to get insight into the origin of apparent negative cooperativity observed for F(1)-ATPase, we compared ATPase activity and ATPMg binding of mutant subcomplexes of thermophilic F(1)-ATPase, alpha((W463F)3)beta((Y341W)3)gamma and alpha((K175A/T176A/W463F)3)beta((Y341W)3)gamma. For alpha((W463F)3)beta((Y341W)3)gamma, apparent K(m)'s of ATPase(More)
The generation of genetic variation (somatic hypermutation) is an essential process for the adaptive immune system in vertebrates. We demonstrate the targeted single-nucleotide substitution of DNA using hybrid vertebrate and bacterial immune systems components. Nuclease-deficient type II CRISPR/Cas9 (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic(More)
Adenosine-5'-triphosphate (ATP) is consumed as a biological energy source by many intracellular reactions. Thus, the intracellular ATP supply is required to maintain cellular homeostasis. The dependence on the intracellular ATP supply is a critical factor in bioproduction by cell factories. Recent studies have shown that changing the ATP supply is critical(More)
We developed a novel enzymatic glutathione (GSH) production system using Saccharomyces cerevisiae as a whole-cell biocatalyst, and improved its GSH productivity by metabolic engineering. We demonstrated that the metabolic engineering of GSH pathway and ATP regeneration can significantly improve GSH productivity by up to 1.7-fold higher compared with the(More)
The biorefinery manufacturing process for producing chemicals and liquid fuels from biomass is a promising approach for securing energy and resources. To establish cost-effective fermentation of lignocellulosic biomass, the consolidation of sacccharification and fermentation processes is a desirable strategy, but requires the development of microorganisms(More)
Glutathione (GSH) is a valuable tri-peptide that is widely used in the pharmaceutical, food, and cosmetic industries. Glutathione is produced industrially by fermentation using Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In this study, we demonstrated that engineering in sulfate assimilation metabolism can significantly improve GSH production. The intracellular GSH content(More)