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Cryptochromes regulate the circadian clock in animals and plants. Humans and mice have two cryptochrome (Cry) genes. A previous study showed that mice lacking the Cry2 gene had reduced sensitivity to acute light induction of the circadian gene mPer1 in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) and had an intrinsic period 1 hr longer than normal. In this study,(More)
A human fibroblast cDNA expression library was screened for cDNA clones giving rise to flat colonies when transfected into v-Ki-ras-transformed NIH 3T3 cells. One such gene, RECK, encodes a membrane-anchored glycoprotein of about 110 kDa with multiple epidermal growth factor-like repeats and serine-protease inhibitor-like domains. While RECK mRNA is(More)
Nuclear accumulation of transglutaminase 2 (TG2) is an important step in TG2-dependent cell death. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms for nuclear translocation of TG2 are still poorly understood. In this study, we demonstrated that acyclic retinoid (ACR) induced nuclear accumulation of TG2 in JHH-7 cells, a hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) leading(More)
Calpastatin, an endogeneous inhibitor protein acting on calpain (Ca(2+)-dependent cysteine proteinase), is widely distributed in animal tissues and cells. Two different expression systems, baculovirus-infected Spodoptera frugiperda (Sf9) insect cells and Escherichia coli, were used for overexpression of the human calpastatin tagged with N-terminal(More)
Transglutaminase 2 (TG2) is primarily known as the most ubiquitously expressed member of the transglutaminase family with Ca(2+)-dependent protein crosslinking activity; however, this enzyme exhibits multiple additional functions through GTPase, cell adhesion, protein disulfide isomerase, kinase, and scaffold activities and is associated with cell growth,(More)
BACKGROUND The antiprotease activity of cystatin M/E regulates skin barrier formation, as it inhibits the activity of cathepsin V, cathepsin L and legumain, thereby controlling the processing of transglutaminase 3. Misregulation of this pathway by unrestrained protease activity, as seen in cystatin M/E-deficient mice, leads to abnormal stratum corneum and(More)
UV radiation induces two major classes of pyrimidine dimers: the pyrimidine [6-4] pyrimidone photoproduct (6-4 product) and the cyclobutane pyrimidine dimer (CPD). Many organisms produce enzymes, termed photolyases, that specifically bind to these damage products and split them via a UV-A/blue light-dependent mechanism, thereby reversing the damage. These(More)
Tissue transglutaminase (TGase 2) belongs to the multigene transglutaminase family of Ca2+-dependent protein cross-linking enzymes. Based on the transamidation activity of TGase 2, a novel colorimetric assay has been developed using covalently coupled spermine to carboxy-substituted polystyrene plates and biotinylated pepT26, an excellent acyl-donor(More)
Cystatin M/E (CST6) is a nonredundant, epithelium-specific protease inhibitor with a presumed role in epidermal differentiation and tumor suppression. We have previously reported that cystatin M/E deficiency in Cst6(-/-) mice causes neonatal lethality because of excessive transepidermal water loss. Biochemical evidence suggests that cystatin M/E controls(More)
Homozygosity for Cst6 null alleles causes the phenotype of the ichq mouse, which is a model for human harlequin ichthyosis (OMIM 242500), a genetically heterogeneous group of keratinization disorders. Here we report evidence for the mechanism by which deficiency of the cysteine protease inhibitor cystatin M/E (the Cst6 gene product) leads to disturbed(More)