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Only a small proportion of the mouse genome is transcribed into mature messenger RNA transcripts. There is an international collaborative effort to identify all full-length mRNA transcripts from the mouse, and to ensure that each is represented in a physical collection of clones. Here we report the manual annotation of 60,770 full-length mouse complementary(More)
Based on variation in nucleotide sequence within restricted regions in the putative C (core) gene of hepatitis C virus (HCV), four groups of HCV have been postulated in a panel of 44 HCV isolates. They were provisionally designated types I, II, III and IV. A method for typing HCV was developed, depending on the amplification of a C gene sequence by(More)
The three-dimensional structure of hanatoxin1 (HaTx1) was determined by using NMR spectroscopy. HaTx1 is a 35 amino acid residue peptide toxin that inhibits the drk1 voltage-gated K(+) channel not by blocking the pore, but by altering the energetics of gating. Both the amino acid sequence of HaTx1 and its unique mechanism of action distinguish this toxin(More)
To evaluate the suitability of a variety of fast voltage-sensitive dyes for optical recording of rapid transmembrane potential activity in the embryonic nervous system, we screened over twenty dyes, including several newly synthesized probes, in three different embryonic neural preparations: cervical vagus nerve bundle, nodose ganglion, and brainstem from(More)
In an effort to assess the spatial patterning of glossopharyngeal responses in the early embryonic chick brainstem, we used a multiple-site optical recording system with a 12 x 12 element photodiode array and a voltage-sensitive merocyanine-rhodanine dye (NK2761) to monitor neural transmembrane voltage activities. Seven and 8 d old embryonic chick(More)
The basic mechanisms of sweat gland function and an updated review of some relatively common disorders of sweat secretion, are presented. Although sweat secretion and ductal absorption are basically biophysical and biologic cellular processes, a detailed description of the basic biophysical principles of membrane transport has been avoided to make the(More)
In the G-protein-coupled receptor superfamily, the opioid receptor subfamily is constituted of the three distinct opioid receptors (namely delta-, mu- and kappa-subtypes) and the receptor for nociceptin (also designated orphaninFQ). The members of the opioid receptor subfamily were known to mediate a variety of cellular inhibitory effects. The three opioid(More)
We searched for an optimal voltage-sensitive dye for optical measurements of neural activity in the hippocampal slice by evaluating several merocyanine-rhodanine and oxonol dyes. The wavelength dependence (action spectra), pharmacological effects of staining, signal size, signal-to-noise ratio, and the utility of the dyes for long-term continuous recording(More)
A new database system named KEGG is being organised to computerize functional aspects of genes and genomes in terms of the binary relations of interacting molecules or genes. We are currently working on the metabolic pathway database that is composed of three interconnected sections: genes, molecules, and pathways, which are also linked to a number of(More)