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BACKGROUND Irinotecan hydrochloride, a topoisomerase I inhibitor, is effective against small-cell lung cancer. In a phase 2 study of irinotecan plus cisplatin in patients with extensive small-cell lung cancer, there was a high response rate and a promising median survival time. METHODS We conducted a multicenter, randomized, phase 3 study in which we(More)
BACKGROUND The scarcity of early biomarkers for acute renal failure has hindered our ability to launch preventive and therapeutic measures for this disorder in a timely manner. We tested the hypothesis that neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) is an early biomarker for ischaemic renal injury after cardiopulmonary bypass. METHODS We studied 71(More)
The molecular machinery governing glutamatergic-GABAergic neuronal subtype specification is unclear. Here we describe a cerebellar mutant, cerebelless, which lacks the entire cerebellar cortex in adults. The primary defect of the mutant brains was a specific inhibition of GABAergic neuron production from the cerebellar ventricular zone (VZ), resulting in(More)
Despite the critical need for iron in many cellular reactions, deletion of the transferrin pathway does not block organogenesis, suggesting the presence of alternative methods to deliver iron. We show that a member of the lipocalin superfamily (24p3/Ngal) delivers iron to the cytoplasm where it activates or represses iron-responsive genes. Iron unloading(More)
Astrocytes, the most abundant glial cell type in the brain, provide metabolic and trophic support to neurons and modulate synaptic activity. In response to a brain injury, astrocytes proliferate and become hypertrophic with an increased expression of intermediate filament proteins. This process is collectively referred to as reactive astrocytosis. Lipocalin(More)
Neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) is expressed and secreted by immune cells, hepatocytes, and renal tubular cells in various pathologic states. NGAL exerts bacteriostatic effects, which are explained by its ability to capture and deplete siderophores, small iron-binding molecules that are synthesized by certain bacteria as a means of iron(More)
BACKGROUND A single serum creatinine measurement cannot distinguish acute kidney injury from chronic kidney disease or prerenal azotemia. OBJECTIVE To test the sensitivity and specificity of a single measurement of urinary neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) and other urinary proteins to detect acute kidney injury in a spectrum of patients.(More)
Connective tissue growth factor (CTGF/CCN2) is one of the candidate factors mediating fibrogenic activity of TGF-beta. It was shown previously that the blockade of CTGF by antisense oligonucleotide (ODN) inhibits TGF-beta-induced production of fibronectin and type I collagen in cultured renal fibroblasts. The in vivo contribution of CTGF in renal(More)
Ghrelin is a novel hormone that possesses growth hormone (GH)-releasing, cardiovascular, and metabolic activities. Ghrelin is a unique acylated polypeptide, and the naked peptide, desacyl ghrelin, does not have the activity. This study examines plasma ghrelin concentrations in 41 patients with mild to severe renal diseases. Two kinds of radioimmunoassays(More)
PURPOSE The aim of our study was to update the rate of severe complications following CT-guided needle biopsy in Japan via a mailed survey. MATERIALS AND METHODS Postal questionnaires regarding CT-guided needle biopsy were sent out to multiple hospitals in Japan. The questions regarded: the total number and duration of CT-guided lung biopsies performed at(More)