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The molecular machinery governing glutamatergic-GABAergic neuronal subtype specification is unclear. Here we describe a cerebellar mutant, cerebelless, which lacks the entire cerebellar cortex in adults. The primary defect of the mutant brains was a specific inhibition of GABAergic neuron production from the cerebellar ventricular zone (VZ), resulting in(More)
The effects of periodic maternal deprivation (PMD) treatment on the adrenocortical stress response and on open-field behavior in adult offspring were investigated. Sprague-Dawley rat pups were deprived of mothers daily for 4.5 h during the first 3 weeks of life. PMD treatment resulted in lower corticosterone levels during restraint stress later in life. The(More)
BACKGROUND The scarcity of early biomarkers for acute renal failure has hindered our ability to launch preventive and therapeutic measures for this disorder in a timely manner. We tested the hypothesis that neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) is an early biomarker for ischaemic renal injury after cardiopulmonary bypass. METHODS We studied 71(More)
Astrocytes, the most abundant glial cell type in the brain, provide metabolic and trophic support to neurons and modulate synaptic activity. In response to a brain injury, astrocytes proliferate and become hypertrophic with an increased expression of intermediate filament proteins. This process is collectively referred to as reactive astrocytosis. Lipocalin(More)
Activated macrophages are classified into two different forms: classically activated (M1) or alternatively activated (M2) macrophages. The presence of M1/M2 phenotypic polarization has also been suggested for microglia. Here, we report that the secreted protein lipocalin 2 (LCN2) amplifies M1 polarization of activated microglia. LCN2 protein (EC 1 μg/ml),(More)
The vast majority of CD4+ T cells infiltrating into gastric mucosa (GM) and in the draining (gastric) lymph node (GLN) shows an activated/memory phenotype, CD45RB(low) L-selectin(low) CD44(high), in neonataly thymectomized BALB/c mice bearing autoimmune gastritis (AIG), indicating that these cells are actively involved in this disease. CD4+ T cells(More)
BACKGROUND Both obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and a novel lipocalin, neutrophil gelatinase associated lipocalin (Ngal), have been reported to be closely linked with cardiovascular disease and loss of kidney function through chronic inflammation. However, the relationship between OSA and Ngal has never been investigated. OBJECTIVES To evaluate the(More)
The present studies were conducted to examine the effects of single and repeated treatments with fluvoxamine, which is a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI), on the synaptic efficacy and synaptic plasticity in the rat hippocampo-medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) pathway in vivo. It has been reported that the projections arising from the hippocampal(More)
Hypermethylation-dependent silencing of the gene is achieved by recruiting methyl-CpG binding proteins (MeCPs). Among the MeCPs, MeCP2 is the most abundantly and ubiquitously expressed in various types of cells. We first screened the distribution and expression pattern of MeCP2 in adult and developing rat tissues and found strong MeCP2 expression, albeit(More)
Acute renal failure secondary to ischemic injury remains a common problem, with limited and unsatisfactory therapeutic options. Neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) was recently shown to be one of the maximally induced genes early in the postischemic kidney. In this study, the role of NGAL in ischemic renal injury was explored. Intravenous(More)