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Dystrophin is associated with a complex of muscle membrane (sarcolemmal) glycoproteins that provide a linkage to the extracellular matrix protein, laminin. The absence of dystrophin leads to a dramatic reduction of the dystrophin-associated proteins (156DAG, 59DAP, 50DAG, 43DAG and 35DAG) in the sarcolemma of patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy and(More)
We previously showed that intraperitoneal injection of lipopolysaccharide induced cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) mRNA in as yet unidentified cells of blood vessels and leptomeninges in the rat brain and proposed a possible role of these cells as the source of prostaglandin E2 in the genesis of fever (Cao et al., Brain Res., 697 (1995) 187-196). In the present(More)
Dystrophin-related protein (DRP) is an autosomal gene product with high homology to dystrophin. We have used highly specific antibodies to the unique C-terminal peptide sequences of DRP and dystrophin to examine the subcellular localization and biochemical properties of DRP in adult skeletal muscle. DRP is enriched in isolated sarcolemma from control and(More)
Hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)), which is contained in industrial products, is also generated within cells. H(2)O(2) causes pain but it has not been elucidated how it activates sensory neurons in the pain pathway. Here we show that transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 (TRPA1), expressed by sensory neurons in the pain pathway, is a receptor for H(2)O(2).(More)
Fever is induced by a neuronal mechanism in the brain. Prostaglandin (PG) E2 acts as a pyrogenic mediator in the preoptic area (POA) probably through the EP3 subtype of PGE receptor expressed on GABAergic neurons, and this PGE2 action triggers neuronal pathways for sympathetic thermogenesis in peripheral effector organs including brown adipose tissue (BAT).(More)
Fever is the widely known hallmark of disease and is induced by the action of the nervous system. It is generally accepted that prostaglandin (PG) E(2) is produced in response to immune signals and then acts on the preoptic area (POA), which triggers the stimulation of the sympathetic system, resulting in the production of fever. Actually, the EP3 subtype(More)
Dystrophin, the protein product of the Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) gene, is associated with a large oligomeric complex of sarcolemmal glycoproteins, including dystroglycan which provides a linkage to the extracellular matrix component, laminin. In patients with DMD, the absence of dystrophin leads to the loss in all of the dystrophin-associated(More)
Sympathetic premotor neurons directly control sympathetic preganglionic neurons (SPNs) in the intermediolateral cell column (IML) of the thoracic spinal cord, and many of these premotor neurons are localized in the medulla oblongata. The rostral ventrolateral medulla contains premotor neurons controlling the cardiovascular conditions, whereas rostral(More)
We present two patients with frontal pure agraphia more impaired for either kanji or kana (two separate writing systems for the Japanese language). The lesion of patient 1 (preferentially disturbed for kanji) was restricted to the foot of the middle frontal gyrus and the adjacent anterior precentral gyrus, whereas the lesion of patient 2 (preferentially(More)
Fukuyama-type congenital muscular dystrophy (FCMD), one of the most common autosomal recessive disorders in Japan (incidence is 0.7-1.2 per 10,000 births), is characterized by congenital muscular dystrophy associated with brain malformation (micropolygria) due to a defect in the migration of neurons. We previously mapped the FCMD gene to a region of less(More)