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1. The process of synaptic depression and recovery were studied in the squid (Loligo pealii) giant synapse with intracellular recording and stimulating electrodes in the prescence of tetrodotoxin (10-minus 7 M). 2. When the synapse was stimulated at 50 Hz, depression occurred rapidly. Recovery after the tetanus was a first-order process with an average(More)
Voltage- and ligand-activated channels in embryonic neurons containing luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH) were studied by patch-pipette, whole-cell current and voltage clamp techniques. LHRH neurons were maintained in explant cultures derived from olfactory pit regions of embryonic mice. Cells were marked intracellularly with Lucifer yellow(More)
Magnocellular neurosecretory cells (MNCs) in the hypothalamo-neurohypophysial system that express and secrete the nonapeptides oxytocin (OT) and vasopressin (VP) were evaluated for the expression of multiple genes in single magnocellular neurons from the rat supraoptic nucleus using a single cell RT-PCR protocol. We found that all cells representing the two(More)
1. Neurotransmitter-receptors in the membrane of Xenopus oocytes have been studied using electrophysiological techniques. Neurotransmitters and related agents were applied while recording either membrane potential or membrane current. The majority of ovarian oocytes used were at stages IV and V.2. Three types of oocytes were examined: inner ovarian(More)
Oxytocin (OT) is a hypothalamic nonapeptide that is synthesized as part of a larger precursor protein that also contains an approximately 10-kDa protein called neurophysin at its C-terminus. This precursor protein is trafficked through the regulated secretory pathway into secretory granules and then axonally transported to and secreted from nerve terminals(More)
Oxytocin (OT) and vasopressin (VP) are peptide hormones that are derived from genes predominantly expressed in distinct magnocellular neurons in the paraventricular (PVN) and supraoptic (SON) nuclei of the hypothalamus. Recent evidence suggests that some magnocellular neurons coexpress both peptides. Our qualitative RT-PCR experiments on single cells show(More)
Rat and mouse hypothalami from postnatal animals containing highly differentiated neurones survive very well in long-term (>15 days in vitro, DIV) stationary organotypic cultures. Magnocellular oxytocin (OT) and vasopressin (VP) neurones are present in identifiable paraventricular (PVN), supraoptic (SON) and accessory (ACC) nuclei in these cultures. After(More)
Neurons from hypothalamic paraventricular nuclei (PVN) and supraoptic nuclei (SON) from postnatal day 6-8 rats were enzymatically dissociated and separately maintained in monolayer cultures for 14 days. The osmotic pressure of the culture medium, based on Neurobasal medium (Life Technologies), was varied (255, 300 and 330 mOsm/l) by adjustment using(More)
Mechanical and thermal changes associated with a propagated nerve impulse were determined using the garfish olfactory nerve. Production of an action potential was found to be accompanied by swelling of the nerve fibers. The swelling starts nearly at the onset of the action potential and reaches its peak at the peak of the action potential. There is a(More)
The survival of rat postnatal mesencephalic dopamine (DA) neurons in dissociated cell cultures was studied by examining the combinatorial effects of dibutyryl cyclic adenosine monophosphate (db-cAMP), glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF), and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), as well as selective inhibitors of protein kinase A (PKA),(More)