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Enzymes in the mitochondrial respiratory chain are involved in various physiological events in addition to their essential role in the production of ATP by oxidative phosphorylation. The use of specific and potent inhibitors of complex I (NADH-ubiquinone reductase) and complex III (ubiquinol-cytochrome c reductase), such as rotenone and antimycin,(More)
Parasites have developed a variety of physiological functions necessary for existence within the specialized environment of the host. Regarding energy metabolism, which is an essential factor for survival, parasites adapt to low oxygen tension in host mammals using metabolic systems that are very different from that of the host. The majority of parasites do(More)
Plastids are widespread in plant and algal lineages. They are also exploited by some nonphotosynthetic protists, including malarial parasites, to support their diverse modes of life. However, cryptic plastids may exist in other nonphotosynthetic protists, which could be important in studies on the diversity and evolution of plastids. The parasite Perkinsus(More)
Apicomplexan parasites of the genus Plasmodium, pathogens causing malaria, and the genera Babesia and Theileria, aetiological agents of piroplasmosis, are closely related. However, their mitochondrial (mt) genome structures are highly divergent: Plasmodium has a concatemer of 6-kb unit and Babesia/Theileria a monomer of 6.6- to 8.2-kb with terminal inverted(More)
In addition to haem copper oxidases, all higher plants, some algae, yeasts, molds, metazoans, and pathogenic microorganisms such as Trypanosoma brucei contain an additional terminal oxidase, the cyanide-insensitive alternative oxidase (AOX). AOX is a diiron carboxylate protein that catalyzes the four-electron reduction of dioxygen to water by ubiquinol. In(More)
Malaria, which is caused by Plasmodium parasites, is transmitted by anopheline mosquitoes. When gametocytes, the precursor cells of Plasmodium gametes, are transferred to a mosquito, they fertilize and proliferate, which render the mosquito infectious to the next vertebrate host. Although the fertilization of malaria parasites has been considered as a(More)
It is generally accepted that the mitochondria play central roles in energy production of most eukaryotes. In contrast, it has been thought that Plasmodium spp., the causative agent of malaria, rely mainly on cytosolic glycolysis but not mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation for energy production during blood stages. However, Plasmodium spp. possesses all(More)
BACKGROUND To elucidate the characteristics of hip fractures and the current status of their treatment in Japan, the Japanese Orthopaedic Association (JOA) conducted a nationwide hip fracture survey from 1998 to the present. The aim of the current report was to present the changes in patient distribution by age and fracture type, cause of fracture,(More)
mRNA and protein expression profiles for three peroxiredoxins (PfTPx-1, PfTPx-2 and Pf1-Cys-Prx) and a thioredoxin (PfTrx-1) of Plasmodium falciparum during the erythrocytic stage were examined by real-time quantitative reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR), Western blotting and confocal laser scanning microscopy. PfTPx-1 was expressed constitutively in the(More)
Mitochondrial (mt) genomes from diverse phylogenetic groups vary considerably in size, structure, and organization. The genus Plasmodium, causative agent of malaria, of the phylum Apicomplexa, has the smallest mt genome in the form of a circular and/or tandemly repeated linear element of 6 kb, encoding only three protein genes (cox1, cox3, and cob). The(More)