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Plastids are widespread in plant and algal lineages. They are also exploited by some nonphotosynthetic protists, including malarial parasites, to support their diverse modes of life. However, cryptic plastids may exist in other nonphotosynthetic protists, which could be important in studies on the diversity and evolution of plastids. The parasite Perkinsus(More)
Enzymes in the mitochondrial respiratory chain are involved in various physiological events in addition to their essential role in the production of ATP by oxidative phosphorylation. The use of specific and potent inhibitors of complex I (NADH-ubiquinone reductase) and complex III (ubiquinol-cytochrome c reductase), such as rotenone and antimycin,(More)
Mitochondrial (mt) genomes from diverse phylogenetic groups vary considerably in size, structure, and organization. The genus Plasmodium, causative agent of malaria, of the phylum Apicomplexa, has the smallest mt genome in the form of a circular and/or tandemly repeated linear element of 6 kb, encoding only three protein genes (cox1, cox3, and cob). The(More)
Worldwide spread of Plasmodium falciparum drug resistance to conventional antimalarials, chloroquine and sulfadoxine/pyrimethamine, has been imposing a serious public health problem in many endemic regions. Recent discovery of drug resistance-associated genes, pfcrt, pfmdr1, dhfr, and dhps, and applications of microsatellite markers flanking the genes have(More)
Malaria, which is caused by Plasmodium parasites, is transmitted by anopheline mosquitoes. When gametocytes, the precursor cells of Plasmodium gametes, are transferred to a mosquito, they fertilize and proliferate, which render the mosquito infectious to the next vertebrate host. Although the fertilization of malaria parasites has been considered as a(More)
Parasites have developed a variety of physiological functions necessary for existence within the specialized environment of the host. Regarding energy metabolism, which is an essential factor for survival, parasites adapt to low oxygen tension in host mammals using metabolic systems that are very different from that of the host. The majority of parasites do(More)
mRNA and protein expression profiles for three peroxiredoxins (PfTPx-1, PfTPx-2 and Pf1-Cys-Prx) and a thioredoxin (PfTrx-1) of Plasmodium falciparum during the erythrocytic stage were examined by real-time quantitative reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR), Western blotting and confocal laser scanning microscopy. PfTPx-1 was expressed constitutively in the(More)
Apicomplexan parasites of the genus Plasmodium, pathogens causing malaria, and the genera Babesia and Theileria, aetiological agents of piroplasmosis, are closely related. However, their mitochondrial (mt) genome structures are highly divergent: Plasmodium has a concatemer of 6-kb unit and Babesia/Theileria a monomer of 6.6- to 8.2-kb with terminal inverted(More)
Mitochondrial (mt) genomes from diverse phylogenetic groups vary considerably in size, structure and organization. The genus Plasmodium, the causative agent of malaria, has the smallest mt genome in the form of a tandemly repeated, linear element of 6 kb. The Plasmodium mt genome encodes only three protein genes (cox1, cox3 and cob) and large- and(More)
The protozoan parasite Entamoeba histolytica ingests and feeds on microorganisms and mammalian cells. Phagocytosis is essential for cell growth and implicated in pathogenesis of E. histolytica. We report here the dynamic changes of phagosome proteins during phagosome maturation by proteomic analysis using reversed-phase capillary liquid chromatography and(More)