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Phox2b protein is a specific marker for neurons in the parafacial region of the ventral medulla, which are proposed to play a role in central chemoreception and postnatal survival. Mutations of PHOX2B cause congenital central hypoventilation syndrome. However, there have been no reports concerning electrophysiological characteristics of these(More)
Sodium- and potassium-dependent ATPase [(Na+ + K+)ATPase], which is responsible for the active transport of Na+ and K+, is distributed universally among animal cell membranes and consists of two types of subunits, alpha and beta (refs 1-4). The larger alpha-subunit with a relative molecular mass (Mr) of 84,000-120,000 is thought to have the catalytic role.(More)
Na+, K+-ATPase 2 subunit gene (Atp1a2) knock-out homozygous mice (Atp1a2-/-) died immediately after birth resulting from lack of breathing. The respiratory-related neuron activity in Atp1a2-/- was investigated using a brainstem-spinal cord en bloc preparation. The respiratory motoneuron activity recorded from the fourth cervical ventral root (C4) was(More)
Drosophila sine oculis and eyes absent genes synergize in compound-eye formation. The murine homologues of these genes, Six and Eya, respectively, show overlapping expression patterns during development. We hypothesized that Six and Eya proteins cooperate to regulate their target genes. Cotransfection assays were performed with various combinations of Six(More)
Six1 is a member of the Six family homeobox genes, which function as components of the Pax-Six-Eya-Dach gene network to control organ development. Six1 is expressed in otic vesicles, nasal epithelia, branchial arches/pouches, nephrogenic cords, somites and a limited set of ganglia. In this study, we established Six1-deficient mice and found that development(More)
The sodium pump is the enzyme responsible for the maintenance of Na+ and K+ gradients across the cell membrane. Four isoforms of the catalytic alpha subunit have been identified, but their individual roles remain essentially unknown. To investigate the necessary functions of the alpha2 subunit in vivo, we generated and analyzed mice defective in the alpha2(More)
All cranial sensory organs and sensory neurons of vertebrates develop from cranial placodes. In chick, amphibians and zebrafish, all placodes originate from a common precursor domain, the pre-placodal region (PPR), marked by the expression of Six1/4 and Eya1/2. However, the PPR has never been described in mammals and the mechanism involved in the formation(More)
We analyzed cis-acting elements regulating the expression of the gene encoding adhesion molecule on glia (AMOG) in primary cultured astrocytes from newborn rat cerebrum and cerebellum. The relative promoter activities among the series of 5' sequential deletion mutants are similar to those observed in B103 (rat neuroblastoma cell line) cells. The previously(More)
The olfactory epithelium (OE) is derived from the olfactory placode (OP) during mouse development. At embryonic day (E) 10.0-E10.5, "early neurogenesis" occurs in the OE, which includes production of pioneer neurons that emigrate out of the OE and other early-differentiated neurons. Around E12.5, the OE becomes organized into mature pseudostratified(More)
Inner ear mechanosensory hair cells transduce sound and balance information. Auditory hair cells emerge from a Sox2-positive sensory patch in the inner ear epithelium, which is progressively restricted during development. This restriction depends on the action of signaling molecules. Fibroblast growth factor (FGF) signalling is important during sensory(More)