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Social defeat experience in male rats causes an increase in anxiety-like behavior in the elevated plus-maze. Some researchers have suggested that housing rats socially following social defeat attenuates and/or prevents an increase in anxiety-like behavior. However, many other studies have shown that individual housing per se enhances anxiety-like behavior(More)
Purpose: Detection of early CT signs of infarct in non-enhanced CT image is mandatory in patients with acute ischemic stroke. Loss of the gray-white matter interface at the lentiform nucleus or the insular ribbon has been an important early CT sign of acute cerebral infarction, which affects decisions on thrombolytic therapy. However, its detection is(More)
The ability of non-human primates to follow the gaze of other individuals has recently received much attention in comparative cognition. The aim of the present study was to investigate the emergence of this ability in a chimpanzee infant. The infant was trained to look at one of two objects, which an experimenter indicated by one of four different cue(More)
This paper describes high-speed circuit configurations for CMOS source-coupled logic (SCL) circuits and T-type flip-flops (T-FFs). Our circuit technique uses the transient currents in the source follower for current switching to boost the circuit operating speeds. We achieved an improvement in the propagation delay time of the SCL circuit in 0.18-μm(More)
This paper describes an approach to automatically detect the parenchymal hypoattenuation of hyperacute stroke in nonenhanced computed tomography (CT) images. This technique is based on a comparison between the CT values histograms of right and left brains. A subtraction curve that was regarded as an output value was calculated by subtracting the(More)
In three experiments, rats were trained to perform two instrumental behaviours (R1 and R2) in the presence of discriminative stimuli (Sd1 and Sd2, respectively) to obtain a common food outcome (O1). Acquisition of the two discriminations was followed by switching the outcome accompanying R2 performance from O1 to a new one (O2). Experiment 1 showed paired(More)
This paper presents novel accurate propagation-delay expressions for evaluating the speed performances of very-high-speed bipolar gates. Our expressions were derived by sensitivity analysis though SPICE simulations. We previously developed high-speed emitter-coupled logic (ECL) and source-coupled logic (SCL) gates for high-speed operations using transient(More)
We trained rats in a context discrimination paradigm by pairing a sucrose solution with lithium chloride in one context (conditioning context) and simple exposure to the same fluid in a second (neutral) context to establish a context-dependent aversion to the conditioned fluid. We then investigated whether transfer of the context dependency to a test fluid(More)