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Duplogs, or intraspecies paralogs, constitute the important portion of eukaryote genomes and serve as a major source of functional innovation. We conducted detailed analyses of recently emerged animal duplogs. Genome data of three vertebrate species (Homo sapiens, Mus musculus, and Danio rerio), Caenorhabditis elegans, and two Drosophila species (Drosophila(More)
Insertions and deletions (indels) account for more nucleotide differences between two related DNA sequences than substitutions do, and thus it is imperative to develop a method to reliably calculate the occurrence probabilities of sequence alignments via evolutionary processes on an entire sequence. Previously, we presented a perturbative formulation that(More)
Insertions and deletions (indels) account for more nucleotide differences between two related DNA sequences than substitutions do, and thus it is imperative to develop a stochastic evolutionary model that enables us to reliably calculate the probability of the sequence evolution through indel processes. Recently, indel probabilistic models are mostly based(More)
Reconstruction of multiple sequence alignments (MSAs) is a crucial step in most homology-based sequence analyses, which constitute an integral part of computational biology. To improve the accuracy of this crucial step, it is essential to better characterize errors that state-of-the-art aligners typically make. For this purpose, we here introduce two tools:(More)
Chlordiazepoxide (CDP) at a dose of 20 mg/kg, i.p. was found to exert a marked disruptive effect on black-white successive discrimination learning in rats, while this effect failed to be obtained on black-gray simultaneous discrimination. Since trials to the learning criterion were found almost equal for saline rats on both successive and simultaneous(More)
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