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Rationale: Acute lung injury (ALI) is a disease process that is characterized by diffuse inflammation in the lung parenchyma. Recent studies demonstrated that cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) induced at the late phase of inflammation aids in the resolution of inflammation by generating 15-deoxy-⌬ 12,14-prostaglandin J 2 (15d-PGJ 2). Transcription factor Nrf2 is(More)
Viral infection may induce the expression of heme oxygenase, resulting in increased carbon monoxide (CO) formation. CO may be produced by various cells of the upper and lower respiratory tract and may be detected in the exhaled air. Therefore, exhaled CO concentrations were measured on a CO monitor by vital capacity maneuver in subjects with upper(More)
To determine whether capsaicin-sensitive sensory nerves are involved in the swallowing reflex, we examined swallowing reflex in terms of the number of swallows elicited by injections of three different volumes (0.2, 0.4, and 0.6 ml) of distilled water, into the pharynx through a catheter in anesthetized guinea pigs pretreated with and without systemic(More)
To study the effect of aging on orexin-A, we measured plasma orexin-A concentrations in 82 healthy volunteers (55 men and 27 women) over a wide range of ages (mean 50.2 +/- 13.9 years, ranging from 23 to 79 years). Correlation analyses revealed that plasma orexin-A concentrations correlated with age (r = 0.50, P < 0.01). When comparing three age groups, it(More)
Exhaled carbon monoxide (CO) concentrations were measured on a CO monitor by vital capacity maneuvers in asthmatic patients receiving or not receiving inhaled corticosteroids and in nonsmoking and smoking healthy control subjects. CO was detectable and measured reproducibly in the exhaled air of all subjects. The exhaled CO concentrations were higher in(More)
RATIONALE Airway remodeling is an important feature of chronic asthma that causes irreversible airflow obstruction. Although asthma is considered to be a Th2 disease, the role of T-bet and GATA-3, the key transcription factors for differentiation toward Th1 and Th2 cells, in the pathogenesis of airway remodeling is poorly understood. OBJECTIVES We(More)
Mucus hypersecretion relates to exacerbations of bronchial asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) caused by rhinovirus (RV) infection. We examined the mechanisms of RV infection-induced mucin production in human tracheal surface epithelial cells and submucosal gland cells. RV14 up-regulated the mRNA expression of MUC2, MUC3, MUC5AC, MUC5B(More)
To examine whether increases in heme oxygenase (HO)-1 activity have protective effects on the oxidant-induced injury of airway epithelial cells, human tracheal epithelial cells were cultured on a porous filter membrane, and electrical conductance (G) and mannitol flux across epithelial membrane were measured with Ussing's chamber methods and(More)
To determine the roles of endogenous enkephalinase (EC. in regulating tachykinin-induced contraction of airway smooth muscle, the authors studied the effects of the enkephalinase inhibitor leucine-thiorphan on the contractile responses to substance P (SP), neurokinin A (NKA) and neurokinin B (NKB) in isolated ferret tracheal smooth muscle(More)