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Cigarette smoke, containing reactive oxygen species, is the most important risk factor for chronic pulmonary emphysema (CPE). Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) plays a protective role as an antioxidant in the lung. A (GT)n dinucleotide repeat in the 5'-flanking region of human HO-1 gene shows length polymorphism and could modulate the level of gene transcription. To(More)
To examine the effects of bafilomycin A(1), a blocker of vacuolar H(+)-ATPase, on rhinovirus (RV) infection in the airway epithelium, primary cultures of human tracheal epithelial cells were infected with RV14. Viral infection was confirmed by showing that viral RNA in the infected cells and the viral titers in the supernatants of infected cells increased(More)
Emphysema is one of the major pathological abnormalities associated with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. The protease/antiprotease imbalance and inflammation resulting from oxidative stress have been attributed to the pathogenesis of emphysema. Nrf2 is believed to protect against oxidative tissue damage through the transcriptional activation of a(More)
Activated macrophages express high levels of Nrf2, a transcription factor that positively regulates the gene expression of antioxidant and detoxication enzymes. In this study, we examined how Nrf2 contributes to the anti-inflammatory process. As a model system of acute inflammation, we administered carrageenan to induce pleurisy and found that in(More)
OBJECTIVES Although attenuated protective reflexes have been implicated in the development of aspiration pneumonia, the relation between the incidence of pneumonia and the state of these reflexes has not been investigated. Furthermore, the role of feeding tube placement in preventing pneumonia in patients with attenuated protective reflexes is unknown. We(More)
STUDY OBJECTIVES To investigate whether erythromycin therapy lowers the frequency of the common cold and subsequent exacerbation in patients with COPD. DESIGN Prospective, randomized, controlled, but not blinded, trial. PATIENTS One hundred nine patients with COPD were enrolled into the study. Patients were randomly assigned to erythromycin therapy or(More)
Inflammation, protease/anti-protease imbalance and oxidative stress play important roles in the pathogenesis of emphysema. Nrf2 counteracts oxidative tissue damage and inflammation through transcriptional activation via the anti-oxidant responsive element (ARE). To clarify the protective role of Nrf2 in the development of emphysema, the susceptibility of(More)
BACKGROUND Pneumonia is a major cause of death in patients with cerebral infarction. We assessed morbidity associated with pneumonia in 276 patients 65 years of age or older who were admitted to a long-term care facility. Furthermore, we studied the swallowing reflex during the day and at night and monitored the occurrence of silent aspiration during sleep.(More)
To examine the effects of erythromycin on rhinovirus (RV) infection in airway epithelium, primary cultures of human tracheal epithelial cells were infected with the RV major subgroup, RV14, and the minor subgroup, RV2. Infection was confirmed by increases in viral RNA of the infected cells and viral titers of the supernatants. RV14 upregulated the(More)