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To estimate the minimal gene set required to sustain bacterial life in nutritious conditions, we carried out a systematic inactivation of Bacillus subtilis genes. Among approximately 4,100 genes of the organism, only 192 were shown to be indispensable by this or previous work. Another 79 genes were predicted to be essential. The vast majority of essential(More)
The K+ Cl- cotransporter KCC2 plays an important role in chloride homeostasis and in neuronal responses mediated by ionotropic GABA and glycine receptors. The expression levels of KCC2 in neurons determine whether neurotransmitter responses are inhibitory or excitatory. KCC2 expression is decreased in developing neurons, as well as in response to various(More)
Mast cells play critical roles in hypersensitivity and in defense against certain parasites. We provide evidence that mouse mast cell survival and growth are promoted by monomeric IgE binding to its high-affinity receptor, Fc epsilon RI. Monomeric IgE does not promote DNA synthesis but suppresses the apoptosis induced by growth factor deprivation. This(More)
The expression of human brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) was investigated in 16 primary human neuroblastomas with favorable biologies, 15 with unfavorable biologies, and in human neuroblastoma cell lines. We demonstrated higher expressions of human BDNF mRNA in neuroblastomas with unfavorable biologies and with N-myc amplification than in those with(More)
We have investigated the effects of gap junction inhibitors, octanol, halothane, sodium propionate and lindane, on neuronal periodic Ca2+ transients in neuron-astrocyte coculture systems. Octanol reduced the amplitude and frequency of Ca2+ oscillations in dose-dependent manner. One mM octanol caused a complete disappearance of Ca2+ oscillations. Similar(More)
Several studies indicate that nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs including indomethacin, aspirin, sulindac, and piroxicam reduce the risk of colon cancer. Furthermore, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs that inhibit the cyclooxygenase (COX) enzyme were shown to inhibit the development of colon cancer in animal models of carcinogenesis. Non-steroidal(More)
BACKGROUND Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is highly expressed in the airway of asthmatic patients. As VEGF increases airway vascular permeability, consequent thickening of the airway wall mucosa may lead to narrowing of the airway lumen. OBJECTIVE We evaluated the relationship between VEGF levels in induced sputum and eosinophilic inflammatory(More)
Voltage-sensitive membrane channels, the sodium channel, the potassium channel and the calcium channel operate together to amplify, transmit and generate electric pulses in higher forms of life. Sodium and calcium channels are involved in cell excitation, neuronal transmission, muscle contraction and many functions that relate directly to human diseases.(More)
Recently, we developed a transgenic mouse with cardiac-specific Gsalpha overexpression (TG mouse), which exhibits enhanced postsynaptic beta-adrenergic receptor signaling, ultimately developing a cardiomyopathy. The goal of the present study was to determine whether cardiac Gsalpha overexpression alters autonomic cardiovascular control, which could shed(More)
Aquaporins (AQPs) are a family of water-selective transporting proteins with homology to the major intrinsic protein (MIP) of lens [Cell 39 (1984) 49], that increase plasma membrane water permeability in secretory and absorptive cells. In the central nervous system (CNS), we detected the transcripts of AQP3, 5 and 8 in addition to the previously reported(More)