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The K+ Cl- cotransporter KCC2 plays an important role in chloride homeostasis and in neuronal responses mediated by ionotropic GABA and glycine receptors. The expression levels of KCC2 in neurons determine whether neurotransmitter responses are inhibitory or excitatory. KCC2 expression is decreased in developing neurons, as well as in response to various(More)
To estimate the minimal gene set required to sustain bacterial life in nutritious conditions, we carried out a systematic inactivation of Bacillus subtilis genes. Among approximately 4,100 genes of the organism, only 192 were shown to be indispensable by this or previous work. Another 79 genes were predicted to be essential. The vast majority of essential(More)
We have investigated the effects of gap junction inhibitors, octanol, halothane, sodium propionate and lindane, on neuronal periodic Ca2+ transients in neuron-astrocyte coculture systems. Octanol reduced the amplitude and frequency of Ca2+ oscillations in dose-dependent manner. One mM octanol caused a complete disappearance of Ca2+ oscillations. Similar(More)
Aquaporins (AQPs) are a family of water-selective transporting proteins with homology to the major intrinsic protein (MIP) of lens [Cell 39 (1984) 49], that increase plasma membrane water permeability in secretory and absorptive cells. In the central nervous system (CNS), we detected the transcripts of AQP3, 5 and 8 in addition to the previously reported(More)
Interleukin (IL)-1beta is known to play a role in the formation of brain edema after various types of injury. Aquaporin (AQP)4 is also reported to be involved in the progression of brain edema. We tested the hypothesis that AQP4 is induced in response to IL-1beta. We found that expression of AQP4 mRNA and protein was significantly up-regulated by IL-1beta(More)
Voltage-sensitive membrane channels, the sodium channel, the potassium channel and the calcium channel operate together to amplify, transmit and generate electric pulses in higher forms of life. Sodium and calcium channels are involved in cell excitation, neuronal transmission, muscle contraction and many functions that relate directly to human diseases.(More)
The membrane pore proteins, aquaporins (AQPs), facilitate the osmotically driven passage of water and, in some instances, small solutes. Under hyperosmotic conditions, the expression of some AQPs changes, and some studies have shown that the expression of AQP1 and AQP5 is regulated by MAPKs. However, the mechanisms regulating the expression of AQP4 and AQP9(More)
Aquaporins(AQPs) are a family of water selective channel. Transcripts of AQP1, AQP3, AQP4, AQP5, AQP8, and AQP9 are detected in the brain. Especially in astrocytes, AQP4 is abundantly expressed in end feet at the blood-brain barrier. Brain AQPs play important roles in the regulation of water homeostasis and the cerebro spinal fluid formation. Recently, AQP4(More)
Transport systems for C4-dicarboxylates, such as malate, fumarate and succinate, are poorly understood in Gram-positive bacteria. The whole genome sequence of Bacillus subtilis revealed two genes, ydbE and ydbH, whose deduced products are highly homologous to binding proteins and transporters for C4-dicarboxylates in Gram-negative bacteria. Between ydbE and(More)
A gene finding system, GeneDecoder, based on a parsing technique using a stochastic grammar and dictionary of genetic words is introduced. The structure of human genes are expressed by a stochastic grammar and a dictionary, whose components are the genetic words consisting of genetic phonemes, built as hidden Markov models (HMMs). The HMMs represent the(More)