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The K+ Cl- cotransporter KCC2 plays an important role in chloride homeostasis and in neuronal responses mediated by ionotropic GABA and glycine receptors. The expression levels of KCC2 in neurons determine whether neurotransmitter responses are inhibitory or excitatory. KCC2 expression is decreased in developing neurons, as well as in response to various(More)
Interleukin (IL)-1beta is known to play a role in the formation of brain edema after various types of injury. Aquaporin (AQP)4 is also reported to be involved in the progression of brain edema. We tested the hypothesis that AQP4 is induced in response to IL-1beta. We found that expression of AQP4 mRNA and protein was significantly up-regulated by IL-1beta(More)
We have investigated the effects of gap junction inhibitors, octanol, halothane, sodium propionate and lindane, on neuronal periodic Ca2+ transients in neuron-astrocyte coculture systems. Octanol reduced the amplitude and frequency of Ca2+ oscillations in dose-dependent manner. One mM octanol caused a complete disappearance of Ca2+ oscillations. Similar(More)
The membrane pore proteins, aquaporins (AQPs), facilitate the osmotically driven passage of water and, in some instances, small solutes. Under hyperosmotic conditions, the expression of some AQPs changes, and some studies have shown that the expression of AQP1 and AQP5 is regulated by MAPKs. However, the mechanisms regulating the expression of AQP4 and AQP9(More)
Aquaporins(AQPs) are a family of water selective channel. Transcripts of AQP1, AQP3, AQP4, AQP5, AQP8, and AQP9 are detected in the brain. Especially in astrocytes, AQP4 is abundantly expressed in end feet at the blood-brain barrier. Brain AQPs play important roles in the regulation of water homeostasis and the cerebro spinal fluid formation. Recently, AQP4(More)
Gliostatin is a polypeptide factor (apparent M(r) = 100 k with a homodimeric structure comprising two 50 kDa subunits) acting on cortical neurons (neurotrophic action) as well as astrocytic cells (growth inhibition). Under the coculture system of cerebral cortical neurons and astrocytes from fetal rats (E15 or E16), the neurotrophic action of gliostatin was(More)
Gliostatin is a polypeptide growth inhibitor of apparent M(r) = 100,000 with a homodimeric structure comprising two 50-kDa subunits, acting on astrocyte as well as astrocytoma cells (Asai, K., Hirano, T., Kaneko, S., Moriyama, A., Nakanishi, K., Isobe, I., Eksioglu, Y.Z., and Kato, T. (1992) J. Neurochem., 59, 307-317). The amino acid sequences of 13(More)
The properties of neocortical neurons during long-term culture on monolayers of astrocytes were examined using whole-cell recording and immunocytochemical techniques. The soma size of neocortical neurons became larger and most neurites reached neighboring neurons within 2 weeks. Recurrent subthreshold electrical activities mediated by synaptic activation(More)
The water channel protein aquaporin (AQP) may play roles in the homeostasis of water content in the brain and brain edema. One possible mechanism of brain edema is glial swelling due to lactic acidosis associated with ischemia. Here, we investigated the effect of lactic acid on the expression and cellular distribution of AQP 4 in cultured rat astrocytes.(More)
Cyclic ADP-ribose (cADPR), a known endogenous modulator of ryanodine receptor Ca2+ releasing channels, is found in the nervous system. Injection of cADPR into neuronal cells primarily induces a transient elevation of intracellular Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i), and/or secondarily potentiates [Ca2+]i increases that are the result of depolarization-induced(More)