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In conclusion, there is overwhelming evidence that within the CNS the primary sites of active HIV-1 infection are microglia. CNS infection may be related to the normal repopulation of the CNS by monocytes (microglial turnover) that carry latent infection into the CNS. Activation of viral infection may depend upon microglial differentiation, soluble factors(More)
The neuropathologic findings of brains and spinal cords removed at autopsy from 26 infants and children with AIDS is described; in two cases, only the spinal cords were available. The most common finding in the brains was dystrophic calcification of blood vessels of all calibers in the basal ganglia and deep cerebral white matter (21 og 24 cases). The next(More)
The central nervous system (CNS) of 221 adults and 31 infants or children with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) was examined with immunocytochemistry for infectious agents and for human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) antigen (gp41). Since the major risk factor in this population was intravenous drug abuse, there were more female and pediatric(More)
Among 102 brains obtained from patients with acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS), 34 cases with subacute AIDS encephalitis were characterized by immunohistochemistry using an antibody that binds to a human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) envelope glycoprotein, gp41. This glycoprotein was detected in mononucleated and/or multinucleated cells in 90%(More)
A 6-year-old boy with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) developed aphasia and quadriplegia 3 months before his death. Cerebral vascular ectasia and multiple cerebral infarcts were noted on premortem radiological studies. Postmortem evaluation revealed diffuse aneurysmal dilatation of the circle of Willis associated with fresh and organizing thrombi,(More)
Because metaplastic carcinoma of the breast encompasses a great variety of histopathology, diagnostic challenges abound, especially within the realm of cytology. The authors compiled and studied an eight-case series comprised of metaplastic breast carcinomas and lesions initially suspicious cytologically for metaplastic carcinoma in order to assess the(More)
Neurological disease is a common finding in children with AIDS and in others without signs of disease but with evidence of congenital HIV-1 infection. To investigate the possibility that HIV-1 can infect fetal central nervous system (CNS) tissue and therefore possibly serve as the substrate for the abnormal neurodevelopment characteristic of pediatric AIDS,(More)
In a 4 1/2-year period, 4 of 68 children in a longitudinal study of neurological complications of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection had clinical and/or neuroradiological evidence of stroke, yielding a clinical incidence of stroke in this population of 1.3% per year. During this period, 32 subjects died, and permission for autopsy was granted in(More)
Disseminated histoplasmosis (DH) and progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy occur in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). At autopsy, DH patients with central nervous system involvement almost always show extensive involvement of the lungs and reticuloendothelial system in addition to the brain, and progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy is(More)
Toxoplasmosis, one of the most common central nervous system lesions in patients with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), has not been reported as a solitary lesion in the brainstem. This report describes a patient with AIDS that presented with third cranial nerve palsy and contralateral cerebellar signs, who at autopsy had a necrotic midbrain(More)