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Chemoattractants like f-Met-Leu-Phe (fMLP) induce neutrophils to polarize by triggering divergent signals that promote the formation of protrusive filamentous actin (F-actin; frontness) and RhoA-dependent actomyosin contraction (backness). Frontness locally inhibits backness and vice versa. In neutrophil-like HL60 cells, blocking(More)
We develop a statistical-mechanical formulation for image restoration and error-correcting codes. These problems are shown to be equivalent to the Ising spin glass with ferromagnetic bias under random external fields. We prove that the quality of restoration/decoding is maximized at a specific set of parameter values determined by the source and channel(More)
Chemoattractants like fMet-Leu-Phe (fMLP) induce neutrophils to polarize with phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-trisphosphate (PIP3) and protrusive F-actin at the front and actomyosin contraction at the sides and back. RhoA and its downstream effector, myosin II, mediate the "backness" response, which locally inhibits the "frontness" response and constrains its(More)
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) produced by phagocytes are essential for host defence against bacterial and fungal infections. Individuals with defective ROS production machinery develop chronic granulomatous disease. Conversely, excessive ROS can cause collateral tissue damage during inflammatory processes and therefore needs to be tightly regulated. Here we(More)
Tim-4 is a phosphatidylserine (PS) receptor that is expressed on various macrophage subsets. It mediates phagocytosis of apoptotic cells by peritoneal macrophages. The in vivo functions of Tim-4 in phagocytosis and immune responses, however, are still unclear. In this study, we show that Tim-4 quickly forms punctate caps on contact with apoptotic cells, in(More)
Colonic patches (CLPs) and isolated lymphoid follicles (ILFs) are two main lymphoid structures in the colon. Lymphoid tissue-inducer cells (LTi cells) are indispensable for the development of ILFs. LTi cells also produce interleukin 17 (IL-17) and IL-22, signature cytokines secreted by IL-17-producing helper T cells. Here we report that IL-22 acted(More)
Chemoattractants such as formyl-Met-Leu-Phe (fMLP) induce neutrophils to polarize by triggering divergent pathways that promote formation of a protrusive front and contracting back and sides. RhoA, a Rho GTPase, stimulates assembly of actomyosin contractile complexes at the sides and back. We show here, in differentiated HL60 cells, that PDZRhoGEF (PRG), a(More)
The intravenous administration of superoxide dismutase (superoxide:superoxide oxidoreductase, EC to animals with induced inflammation suppresses the inflammatory response and inhibits leukocyte infiltration into the challenged site, suggesting that neutrophil-generated superoxide reacts with an extracellular precursor to generate a substance(More)
In order to test the suggestion that antipsychotic drugs act by blocking dopamine receptors in the brain, the direct effects of such neuroleptic drugs were tested on the stereospecific binding of [3H]dopamine and of [3H]haloperidol to rat brain striata and their subfractions. The stereospecific component of binding was defined as that amount of [3h]dopamine(More)