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Our aim was to improve techniques for drug development by facilitating the identification of small molecules that bind with high affinity to acceptor molecules (for example, cell-surface receptors, enzymes, antibodies) and so to mimic or block their interaction with the natural ligand. Previously such small molecules have been characterized individually on(More)
Emerging evidence has suggested environmental factors as causative agents in the pathogenesis of primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC). We have hypothesized that in PBC the lipoyl domain of the immunodominant E2 component of pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDC-E2) is replaced by a chemical xenobiotic mimic, which is sufficient to break self-tolerance. To address this(More)
A novel class of chemical microchips consisting of glass microscope slides was prepared for the covalent attachment of small molecule ligands and peptides through site-specific oxime bond or thiazolidine ring ligation reaction. Commercially available microscope slides were thoroughly cleaned and derivatized with (3-aminopropyl)triethoxysilane (APTES). The(More)
Aging reduces the number of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) that can differentiate into osteoblasts in the bone marrow, which leads to impairment of osteogenesis. However, if MSCs could be directed toward osteogenic differentiation, they could be a viable therapeutic option for bone regeneration. We have developed a method to direct MSCs to the bone surface(More)
PURPOSE To understand the role of HER2-associated signaling network in breast cancer stem cells (BCSC) using radioresistant breast cancer cells and clinical recurrent breast cancers to evaluate HER2-targeted therapy as a tumor eliminating strategy for recurrent HER2(-/low) breast cancers. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN HER2-expressing BCSCs(More)
Antimitochondrial antibodies (AMA) are unique among autoimmune serologic reactants because of their extremely high association with the index disease primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC). This autoantibody response is specifically directed only to the lipoyl domain of the mitochondrial 2-oxo-acid dehydrogenase complexes, which prompted us to search for(More)
The E2 subunit of pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDC-E2) is the major autoantigen recognized by antimitochondrial Abs (AMA) in primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC). Recently, we replaced the lipoic acid moiety of PDC-E2 with a battery of synthetic structures designed to mimic a xenobiotically modified lipoyl hapten on a 12-aa peptide that was found within the(More)
Cardiomyocytes contract against a mechanical load during each heartbeat, and excessive mechanical stress leads to heart diseases. Using a cell-in-gel system that imposes an afterload during cardiomyocyte contraction, we found that nitric oxide synthase (NOS) was involved in transducing mechanical load to alter Ca(2+) dynamics. In mouse ventricular myocytes,(More)