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To document synaptic interactions between neurons in the precentral cortex of macaque monkeys, we recorded in vivo the intracellular (IC) membrane potentials of cortical neurons simultaneously with extracellular (EC) action potentials of neighboring cells. The synaptic potentials correlated with EC spikes were obtained by spike-triggered averages (STA) of(More)
While we have a fair understanding of how and where forelimb-hand manipulative movements are controlled by the neocortex, due to functional imaging studies, we know little about the control of bipedal movements such as walking because of technical difficulties. We succeeded in visualizing cortical activation patterns of human gait by measuring relative(More)
1. We examined single-neuronal activity in the temporal pole of monkeys, including the anterior ventromedial temporal (VMT) cortex (the temporopolar cortex, area 36, area 35, and the entorhinal cortex) and the anterior inferotemporal (IT) cortex, during a visual recognition memory task. In the task, a trial began when the monkey pressed a lever. After a(More)
We investigated changes of regional activation in the frontal cortices as assessed by changes of hemoglobin oxygenation during walking at 3 and 5 km/h and running at 9 km/h on a treadmill using a near-infrared spectroscopic (NIRS) imaging technique. During the acceleration periods immediately preceded reaching the steady walking or running speed, the levels(More)
In four macaque monkeys horseradish peroxidase (HRP) was injected into physiologically defined hand-arm motor area. Ipsilaterally, HRP labeled neurons were found in both upper and lower limbs of the posterior bank of the arcuate sulcus and in an area surrounding the arcuate spur. Contralaterally, labeled neurons were found in the same areas, though less(More)
The corticocortical connections between the arcuate area (Walker's areas 8A and 45 or Brodmann's area 8) and the premotor and supplementary motor areas (Vogts' area 6) in the brain of the macaque monkey were studied microscopically with wheat germ agglutinin-conjugated horseradish peroxidase (WGA-HRP), which was injected into Brodmann's area 8 primarily to(More)
Although recent studies have demonstrated cortical involvement in human balance control, there is insufficient information regarding the regions of the cerebral cortex that contribute to human balance control and their mechanism of action. Using a functional near-infrared spectroscopic system, we investigated perturbation-related cortical activation.(More)
Cortical activation during hemiplegic gait was assessed in six nonambulatory patients with severe stroke (four men, two women; four with right and two with left hemiplegia; 57 years old and 3 months after stroke on average), using a near-infrared spectroscopic imaging system. Each patient performed tasks of treadmill walking (0.2km/hr), alternated with rest(More)
1. Using iontophoretic techniques, we investigated the influence of dopamine (DA) antagonists [haloperidol (HAL), a non-selective DA antagonist; sulpiride (SUL), a selective antagonist for D2 receptors; and fluphenazine (FLU), a potent antagonist for D1 receptors] on neuronal activity related to a delayed response (DR) task in the monkey prefrontal cortex(More)
In this article, we consider both the ventral temporopolar cortex and the perirhinal cortex (areas 35 and 36) as the anterior ventromedial temporal (aVMT) cortex, and discuss its role based on recent data in monkeys and human subjects. In monkeys, the aVMT cortex receives its primary input from area TE, and only minor input from other cortical areas.(More)