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Breast Retraction Assessment (BRA) is an objective evaluation of the amount of cosmetic retraction of the treated breast in comparison to the untreated breast in patients who receive conservative treatment for breast cancer. A clear acrylic sheet supported vertically and marked as a grid at 1 cm intervals is employed to perform the measurements. Average BRA(More)
Arm lymphedema (ALE) was evaluated in 74 patients treated conservatively for breast cancer. ALE was defined based upon measurements performed upon 35 volunteer subjects who did not have and were never treated for breast cancer. Multiple variable statistical analysis of 74 breast cancer patients revealed that age at diagnosis was the most important factor(More)
We evaluated the relative usefulness of two observer-based scales commonly employed to assess the cosmetic outcome of patients treated by breast-preserving techniques for breast cancer. We asked 44 volunteer observers to employ one or the other scale to assess cosmetic outcome in a series of 14 projected color photographs of frontal views of treated(More)
Thirty-two patients with Stage I or II breast cancer who had completed conservative breast-preserving treatment were asked to rate their cosmetic outcomes. Within this group, extent of the surgical excision of the breast tumor varied, with biopsy scars ranging from 2 to 19.5 cm. All patients had received external beam radiotherapy, with local boost doses in(More)
A retrospective study was performed to compare local treatment approaches for 108 treated breasts in 105 patients with Stage I or II breast cancer. Six cases with intraductal carcinoma have shown no evidence of recurrence. The other 102 cases had invasive cancer. In 54 treated breasts in 53 patients, the treatment approach involved surgical resection of the(More)
A method for objective evaluation of cosmetic outcome of patients treated conservatively for breast carcinoma allowed the location of the nipples on two coordinates. The method was applied in 41 patients, 5 to 41 months following the completion of radiation therapy. Multiple variable analysis revealed that extensiveness of resection of the primary breast(More)
Breast edema was evaluated in 45 patients with Stage I or II breast cancer (including two with simultaneous, bilateral disease), who were treated by breast-preserving treatment approaches. Multiple variable statistical analysis revealed that bra cup size was the only factor significantly related to the appearance of breast edema. Breast edema occurred in 3(More)
From June 1978 to June 1986, 50 patients with primary and recurrent mycosis fungoides were treated with total skin electron irradiation (TSEI), using the Stanford technique, to a total dose of 3600 cGy. TSEI was used alone, or in combination with low dose total body photon irradiation, or MOPP. Thermoluminescent dosimeter (TLD) measurements of the(More)
A combination of photon and electron radiation therapy (RT) fields was devised to treat patients with initial or recurrent breast cancer presentations which extensively involved the chest wall (CW) and/or the axilla. The ipsilateral supraclavicular, infraclavicular, axillary, and lateral CW regions are treated in continuity by anterior and posterior opposed(More)
The efficient and rapid synthesis of novel azetidin-2-ones 4a-j has been established. Thus, both microwave and conventional condensation 2-{(1H-benzimidazol)-ylthio}-N'-2-(substituted phenyl) hydrazide with chloroacetylchloride were carried out in DMF-benzene solvent in the presence of Et(3)N catalyst. The microwave synthesis route afforded better yield(More)