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Insulin and insulin growth factor have central roles in growth, metabolism and ageing of animals, including Drosophila melanogaster. In Drosophila, insulin-like peptides (Dilps) are produced by specialized neurons in the brain. Here we show that Drosophila short neuropeptide F (sNPF), an orthologue of mammalian neuropeptide Y (NPY), and sNPF receptor sNPFR1(More)
We demonstrated that upregulation of both gene expression of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress chaperones (BiP, calnexin, calreticulin, and PDI) and ER stress sensors (ATF6, IRE1 and PERK) was induced by lidocaine, a local anesthetic, in PC12 cells. In addition to gene regulation, lidocaine also induced typical ER stress phenomena such as ART6 proteolytic(More)
3-phosphoinositide-dependent kinase-1 (PDK1) is suggested to play important roles in the regulation of synaptic plasticity and neuronal cell survival in the mature CNS. Although few studies have investigated the roles of PDK1, little is known about PDK1 changes in glial cells under neuropathological conditions. In current report, phosphorylation of PDK1 was(More)
The Rho GDP-dissociation inhibitor (RhoGDI) originally downregulates Rho family GTPases by preventing nucleotide exchange and membrane association. Although RhoGDI2 functions as a metastasis regulator, little is known in glial cells under neuropathological conditions. We monitored RhoGDI2 expression in the mouse brain after administering a kainic(More)
Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress has been implicated in neurodegenerative diseases, but its role in neuropathic pain remains unclear. In this study, we examined the ER stress and the unfolded protein response (UPR) activation in a L5 spinal nerve ligation (SNL)-induced rat neuropathic pain model. SNL-induced neuropathic pain was assessed behaviorally using(More)
An increased expression of the ischemia-responsive protein gene (irp94) was detected in a Mongolian gerbil brain after an ischemic injury, particularly in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus. In a rat phaeochromocytoma tumour cell line (PC12 cells), actinomycin D blocked the irp94 gene expression but cycloheximide did not. This indicates that irp94 gene(More)
The effects of hypothermic treatment (32℃) on recovery from ischemia are controversial because the precise mechanisms of hypothermia remain unclear. We demonstrated previously that hypothermia induces beta-catenin-interacting protein 1 (CTNNBIP1) gene expression in vitro. In this study, we evaluated the effects of various hypothermic conditions, including(More)
We demonstrated that up-regulation of gene expression of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) chaperones (BiP, calnexin, calreticulin, ERp29) and ER membrane kinases (IRE1, PERK, ATF6) was induced by radiation in neuronal PC12 cells. However, addition of silkworm, Bombyx mori, hemolymph to irradiated cells resulted in an obvious decrease in expression of these genes,(More)
Using silkworm Bombyx mori Bm5 cells, we established a stable cell line expressing the human granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor (hGM-CSF), which gets its name from the Bm5-hGM-CSF cell in which the glycoprotein of the hGM-CSF is secreted in the cell culture supernatant (CCS). It was demonstrated that secreted hGM-CSF had in vivo biological(More)