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Adult-born hippocampal neurons are important for cognitive plasticity in rodents. There is evidence for hippocampal neurogenesis in adult humans, although whether its extent is sufficient to have functional significance has been questioned. We have assessed the generation of hippocampal cells in humans by measuring the concentration of(More)
Obesity is increasing in an epidemic manner in most countries and constitutes a public health problem by enhancing the risk for cardiovascular disease and metabolic disorders such as type 2 diabetes. Owing to the increase in obesity, life expectancy may start to decrease in developed countries for the first time in recent history. The factors determining(More)
The generation of cells in the human body has been difficult to study, and our understanding of cell turnover is limited. Testing of nuclear weapons resulted in a dramatic global increase in the levels of the isotope 14C in the atmosphere, followed by an exponential decrease after 1963. We show that the level of 14C in genomic DNA closely parallels(More)
Stem cells generate neurons in discrete regions in the postnatal mammalian brain. However, the extent of neurogenesis in the adult human brain has been difficult to establish. We have taken advantage of the integration of (14)C, generated by nuclear bomb tests during the Cold War, in DNA to establish the age of neurons in the major areas of the human(More)
The number of cells in an organ is regulated by mitogens and trophic factors that impinge on intrinsic determinants of proliferation and apoptosis. We here report the identification of an additional mechanism to control cell number in the brain: EphA7 induces ephrin-A2 reverse signaling, which negatively regulates neural progenitor cell proliferation. Cells(More)
OBJECTIVE Adipose tissue may contain few large adipocytes (hypertrophy) or many small adipocytes (hyperplasia). We investigated factors of putative importance for adipose tissue morphology. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Subcutaneous adipocyte size and total fat mass were compared in 764 subjects with BMI 18-60 kg/m(2). A morphology value was defined as the(More)
Adipose tissue mass is determined by the storage and removal of triglycerides in adipocytes. Little is known, however, about adipose lipid turnover in humans in health and pathology. To study this in vivo, here we determined lipid age by measuring (14)C derived from above ground nuclear bomb tests in adipocyte lipids. We report that during the average(More)
Continuous turnover of neurons in the olfactory bulb is implicated in several key aspects of olfaction. There is a dramatic decline postnatally in the number of migratory neuroblasts en route to the olfactory bulb in humans, and it has been unclear to what extent the small number of neuroblasts at later stages contributes new neurons to the olfactory bulb.(More)
Establishing the age at death of individuals is an important step in their identification and can be done with high precision up to adolescence by analysis of dentition, but it is more difficult in adults. Here we show that the amount of radiocarbon present in tooth enamel as a result of nuclear bomb testing during 1955-63 is a remarkably accurate indicator(More)
Age determination of unknown human bodies is important in the setting of a crime investigation or a mass disaster because the age at death, birth date, and year of death as well as gender can guide investigators to the correct identity among a large number of possible matches. Traditional morphological methods used by anthropologists to determine age are(More)