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BACKGROUND The AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) cascade is a sensor of cellular energy charge that acts as a 'metabolic master switch' and inhibits cell proliferation. Activation requires phosphorylation of Thr172 of AMPK within the activation loop by upstream kinases (AMPKKs) that have not been identified. Recently, we identified three related protein(More)
The AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a critical regulator of energy balance at both the cellular and whole-body levels. Two upstream kinases have been reported to activate AMPK in cell-free assays, i.e., the tumor suppressor LKB1 and calmodulin-dependent protein kinase kinase. However, evidence that this is physiologically relevant currently only(More)
Salicylate, a plant product, has been in medicinal use since ancient times. More recently, it has been replaced by synthetic derivatives such as aspirin and salsalate, both of which are rapidly broken down to salicylate in vivo. At concentrations reached in plasma after administration of salsalate or of aspirin at high doses, salicylate activates adenosine(More)
Background: The AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) cascade is a sensor of cellular energy charge that acts as a 'metabolic master switch' and inhibits cell proliferation. Activation requires phosphorylation of Thr172 of AMPK within the activation loop by upstream kinases (AMPKKs) that have not been identified. Recently, we identified three related protein(More)
The adenosine monophosphate (AMP)-activated protein kinase (AMPK) has a crucial role in maintaining cellular energy homeostasis. This study shows that human and mouse T lymphocytes express AMPKalpha1 and that this is rapidly activated in response to triggering of the T cell antigen receptor (TCR). TCR stimulation of AMPK was dependent on the adaptors LAT(More)
5'-AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) has been proposed to be a pivotal factor in cellular responses to both acute exercise and exercise training. To investigate whether protein levels and gene expression of catalytic (alpha(1), alpha(2)) and regulatory (beta(1), beta(2), gamma(1), gamma(2), gamma(3)) AMPK subunits and exercise-induced AMPK activity are(More)
OBJECTIVE To investigate molecular adaptations that accompany the elevation of intramyocellular lipid (IMCL) content on a high-fat (HF) diet for 1 week. RESEARCH METHODS AND PROCEDURES Ten subjects consumed a normal-fat (NF) diet for 1 week, followed by an HF diet for another week. After both dietary periods, we determined the IMCL content by proton(More)
Early detection of an O2 deficit in the bloodstream is essential to initiate corrective changes in the breathing pattern of mammals. Carotid bodies serve an essential role in this respect; their type I cells depolarize when O2 levels fall, causing voltage-gated Ca2+ entry. Subsequent neurosecretion elicits increased afferent chemosensory fiber discharge to(More)
Acute or chronic activation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) increases insulin sensitivity. Conversely, reduced expression and/or function of AMPK might play a role in insulin resistance in type 2 diabetes. Thus protein expression of the seven subunit isoforms of AMPK and activities and/or phosphorylation of AMPK and acetyl-CoA carboxylase-beta(More)
Urocortins are the endogenous ligands for the corticotropin-releasing factor receptor type 2 (CRFR2), which is implicated in regulating energy balance and/or glucose metabolism. We determined the effects of chronic CRFR2 activation on metabolism in vivo, by generating and phenotyping transgenic mice overproducing the specific CRFR2 ligand urocortin 3. Body(More)