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Macrophages acquire strikingly different properties that enable them to play key roles during the initiation, propagation, and resolution of inflammation. Classically activated (M1) macrophages produce proinflammatory mediators to combat invading pathogens and respond to tissue damage in the host, whereas regulatory macrophages (M2b) produce high levels of(More)
The polarization of macrophages into a regulatory-like phenotype and the production of IL-10 plays an important role in the resolution of inflammation. We show in this study that PGE(2), in combination with LPS, is able to promote an anti-inflammatory phenotype in macrophages characterized by high expression of IL-10 and the regulatory markers SPHK1 and(More)
Macrophages are an important source of cytokines following infection. Stimulation of macrophages with TLR agonists results in the secretion of TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-12, and the production of these cytokines is controlled by multiple feedback pathways. Macrophages also produce IL-10, which acts to inhibit proinflammatory cytokine production by macrophages via(More)
In response to infection by fungal pathogens, the innate immune system recognises specific fungal pathogen associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) via pattern recognition receptors including the C-type lectin dectin-1 and members of the Toll Like Receptor (TLR) family. Stimulation of these receptors leads to the induction of both pro- and anti-inflammatory(More)
Prostaglandin production is catalyzed by cyclooxygenase 2 (cox-2). We demonstrate here that MSK1 and MSK2 (MSK1/2) can exert control on the induction of cox-2 mRNA by Toll-like receptor (TLR) agonists. In the initial phase of cox-2 induction, MSK1/2 knockout macrophages confirmed a role for MSK in the positive regulation of transcription. However, at later(More)
Water stress plating hypersensitivity was studied in two strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, one of them being a mutant incapable of accumulating trehalose to significant levels. The wild-type strain was grown in a defined medium with glucose, maltose or ethanol as carbon/energy source. In each case plating hypersensitivity was demonstrated and resistance(More)
On the basis mainly of pharmacological experiments, the p38α MAP kinase isoform has been established as an important regulator of immune and inflammatory responses. However, the role of the related p38γ and p38δ kinases has remained unclear. Here, we show that deletion of p38γ and p38δ impaired the innate immune response to lipopolysaccharide (LPS), a(More)
Chemokines, including MCP-1, are crucial to mounting an effective immune response due to their ability to recruit other immune cells. We show that sustained LPS or poly(I:C)-stimulated MCP-1 production requires an IFNβ-mediated feedback loop. Consistent with this, exogenous IFNβ was able to induce MCP-1 transcription in the absence of other stimuli.(More)
cAMP-specific PDE (phosphodiesterase) 4 isoforms underpin compartmentalized cAMP signalling in mammalian cells through targeting to specific signalling complexes. Their importance is apparent as PDE4 selective inhibitors exert profound anti-inflammatory effects and act as cognitive enhancers. The p38 MAPK (mitogen-activated protein kinase) signalling(More)
Clearance of fibrin through proteolytic degradation is a critical step of matrix remodeling that contributes to tissue repair in a variety of pathological conditions, such as stroke, atherosclerosis, and pulmonary disease. However, the molecular mechanisms that regulate fibrin deposition are not known. Here, we report that the p75 neurotrophin receptor(More)