Kirsty E. Little

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BACKGROUND Exclusive breastfeeding, though better than other forms of infant feeding and associated with improved child survival, is uncommon. We assessed the HIV-1 transmission risks and survival associated with exclusive breastfeeding and other types of infant feeding. METHODS 2722 HIV-infected and uninfected pregnant women attending antenatal clinics(More)
OBJECTIVE Stigma has been conceptualized as comprised of 3 constructs: knowledge (ignorance), attitudes (prejudice), and behaviour (discrimination). We are not aware of a psychometrically tested instrument to assess knowledge about mental health problems among the general public. Our paper presents the results of the development stage and the psychometric(More)
BACKGROUND Surveillance programmes for prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV (PMTCT) fail to quantify numbers of infant HIV infections averted, often because of poor postnatal follow-up. Additionally, infected infants are often not identified early and only gain access to comprehensive HIV care and treatment late in their disease. METHODS(More)
BACKGROUND Although stigma in relation to mental health has been defined as including components of knowledge, attitudes and behaviour, no psychometrically tested instrument to assess behavioural discrimination at the population level has been developed. This paper presents details of the development and psychometric properties of the Reported and Intended(More)
BACKGROUND England's Time To Change (TTC) social marketing campaign emphasised social contact between people with and without mental health problems to reduce stigma and discrimination. AIMS We aimed to assess the effectiveness of the mass media component and also that of the mass social contact events. METHOD Online interviews were performed before and(More)
BACKGROUND In 2006 the Shaw Trust charity found high levels of ignorance and poor preparedness to deal with mental health problems among 480 senior employers in the UK. The UK government, non-governmental organisations and Time to Change (TTC) have since provided relevant assistance to employers. AIMS To examine whether there have been improvements in(More)
This paper reviews the data sources and methods used to estimate the number of people on, and coverage of, antiretroviral therapy (ART) programmes in low- and middle-income countries and to monitor the progress towards the "3 by 5" target set by WHO and UNAIDS. We include a review of the data sources used to estimate the coverage of ART programmes as well(More)
OBJECTIVES We report on a nonrandomized intervention cohort study to increase exclusive breast-feeding rates for 6 months after delivery in HIV-positive and HIV-negative women in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. METHODS Lay counselors visited women to support exclusive breast-feeding: four times antenatally, four times in the first 2 weeks postpartum and then(More)
Approximately 700,000 children become newly infected with HIV annually, mainly through mother-to-child transmission (MTCT), making paediatric HIV a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. The substantial interest in preventing MTCT (PMTCT) has generated information on rates of transmission and associated factors, but there is a lack of(More)
BACKGROUND With the gradual roll-out of antiretroviral therapy (ART) to delay progression of HIV disease in children in programmes across sub-Saharan Africa and resource-limited settings elsewhere, reliable information on the number of vertically infected children eligible for such treatment is urgently required. METHODS We present a model to estimate the(More)