Kirsty E H Penkman

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The colonization of Eurasia by early humans is a key event after their spread out of Africa, but the nature, timing and ecological context of the earliest human occupation of northwest Europe is uncertain and has been the subject of intense debate. The southern Caucasus was occupied about 1.8 million years (Myr) ago, whereas human remains from(More)
Mastodon and Tyrannosaurus rex Revealed by Mass Spectrometry” Mike Buckley,1 Angela Walker,2 Simon Y. W. Ho,3 Yue Yang,1 Colin Smith,4 Peter Ashton,1 Jane Thomas Oates, Enrico Cappellini, Hannah Koon, Kirsty Penkman, Ben Elsworth, Dave Ashford,1 Caroline Solazzo,1 Phillip Andrews,2 John Strahler,2 Beth Shapiro,6 Peggy Ostrom, Hasand Gandhi, Webb Miller,(More)
Marine and ice-core records show that the Earth has experienced a succession of glacials and interglacials during the Quaternary (last ∼2.6 million years), although it is often difficult to correlate fragmentary terrestrial records with specific cycles. Aminostratigraphy is a method potentially able to link terrestrial sequences to the marine isotope stages(More)
It is difficult to obtain fossil data from the 10% of Earth's terrestrial surface that is covered by thick glaciers and ice sheets, and hence, knowledge of the paleoenvironments of these regions has remained limited. We show that DNA and amino acids from buried organisms can be recovered from the basal sections of deep ice cores, enabling reconstructions of(More)
Estimation of age-at-death for skeletonised forensic remains is one of the most significant problems in forensic anthropology. The majority of existing morphological and histological techniques are highly inaccurate, and show a bias towards underestimating the age of older individuals. One technique which has been successful in forensic age estimation is(More)
An interdisciplinary study of a small sedimentary basin at Neumark Nord 2 (NN2), Germany, has yielded a high-resolution record of the palaeomagnetic Blake Event, which we are able to place at the early part of the last interglacial pollen sequence documented from the same section. We use this data to calculate the duration of this stratigraphically(More)
Previous research has indicated that the extent of amino acid racemization in enamel varies systematically between tooth types within the dentition. This phenomenon was suggested to be due to differences in temperature at various locations within the mouth. This paper presents an analysis of aspartic acid racemization in a fraction of the enamel proteins(More)
Evolutionary biologists are increasingly relying on ancient DNA from archaeological animal bones to study processes such as domestication and population dispersals. As many animal bones found on archaeological sites are likely to have been cooked, the potential for DNA preservation must be carefully considered to maximise the chance of amplification(More)
The poor accuracy of most current methods for estimating age-at-death in adult human skeletal remains is among the key problems facing palaeodemography. In forensic science, this problem has been solved for unburnt remains by the development of a chemical method for age estimation, using amino acid racemization in collagen extracted from dentine. Previous(More)