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In the past 30 years, the average age of biomedical researchers has steadily increased. The average age of an investigator at the National Institutes of Health (NIH) rose from 39 to 51 between 1980 and 2008. The aging of the biomedical workforce was even more apparent when looking at first-time NIH grantees. The average age of a new investigator was 42 in(More)
As the scientific community globalizes, it is increasingly important to understand the effects of international collaboration on the quality and quantity of research produced. While it is generally assumed that international collaboration enhances the quality of research, this phenomenon is not well examined. Stem cell research is unique in that it is both(More)
Science and engineering research has becoming an increasingly international phenomenon. Traditional bibliometric studies have not captured the evolution of collaborative partnerships between countries, particularly in emerging technologies such as stem cell science, in which an immense amount of investment has been made in the past decade. Analyzing over(More)
BACKGROUND In 2004, patient advocate groups were major players in helping pass and implement significant public policy and funding initiatives in stem cells and regenerative medicine. In the following years, advocates were also actively engaged in Washington DC, encouraging policy makers to broaden embryonic stem cell research funding, which was ultimately(More)
Since its founding in 1780, the American Academy has served the nation as a champion of scholarship, civil dialogue, and useful knowledge. As one of the nation's oldest learned societies and independent policy research centers, the Academy convenes leaders from the academic, business, and government sectors to examine the critical issues facing our global(More)
In 2011, courts in both the United States and European Union handed down decisions related to human embryonic stem cell (hESC) research. In both cases, the definition of research was challenged – but the two courts reached different opinions. In the US case, Sherley v. Sebelius, research was defined as a specific project. The US District Court of Appeals(More)
Stem cells obtained from umbilical cord blood (CB) are used to treat more than 80 different diseases and are a standard treatment for many types of leukemias, lymphomas, myelodysplasias, and inherited immune system disorders. CB transplants have been carried out in humans for over 25 years, and hundreds of clinical trials are currently underway(More)
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