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The effects of methods known to perturb endocytosis from clathrin-coated pits on the localization of clathrin and HA2 adaptors in HEp-2 carcinoma cells have been studied by immunofluorescence and ultrastructural immunogold microscopy, using internalization of transferrin as a functional assay. Potassium depletion, as well as incubation in hypertonic medium,(More)
Acidification of the cytosol of a number of different cell lines strongly reduced the endocytic uptake of transferrin and epidermal growth factor. The number of transferrin binding sites at the cell surface was increased in acidified cells. Electron microscopic studies showed that the number of coated pits at the cell surface was not reduced in cells with(More)
The importance of cholesterol for endocytosis has been investigated in HEp-2 and other cell lines by using methyl-beta-cyclodextrin (MbetaCD) to selectively extract cholesterol from the plasma membrane. MbetaCD treatment strongly inhibited endocytosis of transferrin and EGF, whereas endocytosis of ricin was less affected. The inhibition of transferrin(More)
The mechanism of cholera toxin (CT) internalization has been investigated using Caco-2 cells transfected with caveolin to induce formation of caveolae, HeLa cells with inducible synthesis of mutant dynamin (K44A) and BHK cells in which antisense mRNA to clathrin heavy chain can be induced. Here we show that endocytosis and the ability of CT to increase the(More)
A large number of protein toxins having enzymatically active A- and B-moieties that bind to cell surface receptors must be endocytosed before the A-moiety is translocated into the cytosol where it exerts its cytotoxic action. The accumulated information about the most well-studied toxins has provided a detailed picture of how they exploit the membrane(More)
The plant toxin ricin and the bacterial toxin Shiga toxin belong to a group of protein toxins that inhibit protein synthesis in cells enzymatically after entry into the cytosol. Ricin and Shiga toxin, which both have an enzymatically active moiety that inactivates ribosomes and a moiety that binds to cell surface receptors, enter the cytosol after binding(More)
We have studied the effects of brefeldin A (BFA) on endocytosis and intracellular traffic in polarized MDCK cells by using the galactose-binding protein toxin ricin as a membrane marker and HRP as a marker of fluid phase transport. We found that BFA treatment rapidly increased apical endocytosis of both ricin and HRP, whereas basolateral endocytosis was(More)
The plant toxin ricin is transported to the Golgi and the endoplasmic reticulum before translocation to the cytosol where it inhibits protein synthesis. The toxin can therefore be used to investigate pathways leading to the Golgi apparatus. Except for the Rab9-mediated transport of mannose 6-phosphate receptors from endosomes to the trans-Golgi network(More)
Endocytosis and intracellular transport of ricin were studied in stable transfected HeLa cells where overexpression of wild-type (WT) or mutant dynamin is regulated by tetracycline. Overexpression of the temperature-sensitive mutant dynG273D at the nonpermissive temperature or the dynK44A mutant inhibits clathrin-dependent endocytosis (Damke, H., T. Baba,(More)
Cytochalasin D was found to reduce the endocytosis of ricin and the fluid phase markers [14C]sucrose and Lucifer Yellow in Vero cells without reducing the uptake of transferrin. The number of coated pits at the plasma membrane was not affected by the treatment. Cytochalasin D also reduced the endocytosis of ricin in cells where uptake of transferrin from(More)