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AIMS/HYPOTHESIS The aim of this study was to examine the effect of birth weight on glucose tolerance in juvenile and adult pigs. METHODS Low (<1.47 kg) and high (>1.53 kg) birth weight piglets from 15 litters were studied at 3 ( n=47) and 12 ( n=17) months of age. At each age, selected pigs were tranquilised and catheters were inserted into the dorsal(More)
OBJECTIVE The aim of this study was to compare the effects of the selective prostaglandin synthase type 2 inhibitor nimesulide, alone or in combination with the oxytocin receptor antagonist atosiban, on the progression of glucocorticoid-induced premature labor in sheep. Effects on circulating maternal and fetal prostaglandin concentrations and on fetal(More)
A dramatic late-gestation increase in fetal plasma cortisol concentrations is critical for the timing of parturition in the sheep. This increase appears to depend upon an intact hypothalamo-pituitary unit and is characterised by increasing responsiveness of the fetal adrenal gland to ACTH. ACTH has been postulated as the critical determinant of the(More)
The early life environment has long-term implications for the risk of developing cardiovascular (CV) disease in adulthood. Fetal responses to changes in maternal nutrition may be of immediate benefit to the fetus, but the long-term effects of these adaptations may prove detrimental if nutrition in postnatal life does not match that predicted by the fetus on(More)
OBJECTIVE The purpose of the study was to determine the effects of selective prostaglandin synthase type 2 inhibitors on basal prostaglandin concentrations in the fetal and maternal circulations and on the labor-associated increase in prostaglandin production in sheep. STUDY DESIGN The effects of maternal nimesulide (0.01, 0.1, and 1 mg/kg) and(More)
The early-life environment has implications for risk of adult-onset diseases, such as glucose intolerance, insulin insensitivity, and obesity, effects that may occur with or without reduced birth weight. We determined the consequences of nutrient restriction in early gestation and early postnatal life and their interactions on postnatal growth, body(More)
The early-life environment affects risk of later metabolic disease, including glucose intolerance, insulin resistance and obesity. Changes in hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and sympathoadrenal function may underlie these disorders. To determine consequences of undernutrition in early gestation and/or immediately following weaning on HPA axis and(More)
The prevalence of the metabolic syndrome, which represents a spectrum of metabolic and cardiovascular disorders, continues to increase at an alarming rate in contemporary society. Inadequate responses of an individual to environmental challenges such as unbalanced diet or lack of physical exercise during their life course has been recognised to increase(More)
In man, epidemiological studies have shown that low birth weight (BW) is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease in later life. In this study, the long-term consequences of variations in natural BW on basal cardiovascular function were investigated in pigs at 3 months of postnatal age. Low (< 1.41 kg; n = 20) and high (> 1.52 kg; n = 20)(More)
Tissue glucose-6-phosphatase (G6P) and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) activities were investigated in sheep fetuses after experimental manipulation of thyroid hormone status. Increments in hepatic and renal G6P and PEPCK activities seen between 127-130 and 140-145 days of gestation (term, 145 +/- 2 days) were abolished when the normal prepartum(More)